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Drought of 1975-1976

Central and Northern Europe

Drought Event Summary

The 1975-1976 event was brought about by a relatively dry, mild winter with below average precipitation. This precipitation deficit developed during spring and summer over Western Europe centering in NW France to SE England. Only the Mediterranean and the north-west (Norway) were unaffected. Throughout May and June, the drought spread north and eastward resulting in a strongly contiguous cluster centred over Central Europe that peaked on July 1st, when also a high consistency is seen among the models, suggesting a strong influence of the common forcing and a reliable result. This is confirmed by Zaidman et al (2001) who found the maximum extent for daily streamflow drought to occur on 7 July.

Abnormally hot, dry conditions continued until cold air was advected over Scandinavia in August, breaking the pattern and forming a large, pressure area over the Continent.

Drought Statistics

Approx. duration: 11/1975-2/1977

Date of SPI-6 min: 7/27/1976

Date of hydrological min: 7/1/1976

Affected regions: Central and Northern Europe

Climatological Drought

A precipitation deficit was already evident in the late fall and winter of 1975 for Scandinavia and eastern Europe. As spring progressed, this area of drought expanded to include more of central Europe. By the climatological drought peak in late July, nearly all areas of Europe except for the Mediterranean and coastal Norway were experienced markedly below average rainfall. Conditions returned to normal for much of Europe in late fall and early winter of 1976.

Progression of climatological (SPI-6) drought. Climatological drought is defined by the SPI-6, which sums precipitation over the previous 6 months and transforms this value to the standard normal distribution. Negative SPI values (shown in red) represent dry conditions, measured in standard deviations from typical conditions. Percent area in drought is calculated by summing all cells less than the 20th percentile (SPI < -0.84).


Hydrological Drought

The hydrological drought peak occurred on July(7) 1, 1976 and covered the majority of temperate Europe, extending from the UK and France in the west to Russia in the east. The Mediterranean region was largely unaffected.

Peak hydrological drought. with Hydrological drought is based on output nine large-scale hydrological models. Viewed spatially (left), areas with runoff below the 10th and 20th percentiles are shown in red and orange, respectively. The cluster centre (right) shows the centroid from each of the hydrological models during the drought peak.


Drought Impacts

In parts of Northwestern Europe already the growing season (May to September) of 1975 was characterized by markedly below average rainfall. By June 1975 hosepipe bans had been imposed throughout South West England and were extended to substantial parts of England and Wales during the following months (Rodda & Marsh, 2011). Newspapers also reported on record number of forest, heath and field fires in Denmark and adjacent Northern Germany as well as shortage of fodder in Eastern parts of Norway leading to slaughtering of cattle and transports of milk from the West.

Then, the drought conditions in 1976 combined with a heat wave in June/July particularly hit France and the UK but resulted in widespread socio-economic and environmental impacts throughout Western Europe. Agriculture was extensively affected. Due to insufficient grazing availability and low hay and fodder crop yields livestock and especially dairy farming severely suffered from feed shortages during the hot weather period. This caused early slaughter of livestock at “unprecedented rates” (EIR, 1976). Particularly France, Great Britain and Denmark (all of them having faced drought conditions since 1975) reported drastically fallen milk production. In parts of Great Britain and the Netherlands saline intrusions contributed to agricultural damage (Rodda & Marsh, 2011; Massarutto et al., 2013). Households were impacted through sharply increased prices especially for potatoes and fresh vegetables together with the loss of their own garden produce (Courvoisier et al. 1977; Dornkamp et al. 1980; Rodda & Marsh, 2011).

Location of drought impact reports. Darker colors refer to more reported impacts in the EDII. Scroll over each country to see more detail.

The impact on public water supply services varied spatially. In England and Wales the seriousness of the water supply situation due to prolonged drought was a major problem; despite diverse mitigation measures for a period from beginning of August daily shutoffs had to be applied which finally affected over one million consumers (Rodda & Marsh, 2011; Dornkamp et al., 980). In France limitations in water supply affected urban and rural areas in particular in the East, in Brittany and in touristic areas at the West coast yet were less severe than expected at the beginning of the summer (Brochet, 1977). While the need for a reduction in demand, including sometimes also outdoor water use restrictions (hosepipe bans), was given also in large parts of the Rhine basin, critical regional water shortages and failures of supply remained limited mainly to rural areas where in some cases emergency supply had to be realized by trucks and even helicopters (Gerhard et al. 1983).

Because of low stream flows reduced hydropower production and impaired production of thermal and nuclear power plants were common problems for the energy sector. Further, inland navigation on the Rhine and other important transport routes was heavily impaired sometimes until into 1977 (van der Heijde, 1978; Gerhard et al. 1983; RIZA, 2005). According to RIZA (2005) 1976 belongs to the top five years of largest economic loss for the navigation sector in the Netherlands (ranked fifth after the years 1921, 1949, 1949 and 1959). Across much of Southern and Eastern England land subsidence was experienced on a scale not previously recorded leading to substantial property damage (Dornkamp et al., 1980).

Among the reported environmental impacts of the drought and heat wave in 1976 are impacts on freshwater ecosystems, i.e. the temporary deterioration of (surface) water quality (mainly eutrophication phenomena), algal blooms, extreme water temperatures, depletion of dissolved oxygen to critical levels, massive proportions of sewage effluent, saline incursions, fish kill events (sometimes related to excessive withdrawals for agricultural irrigation), drying up of stream sections with effects on aquatic species and especially migratory fish (Dornkamp et al. 19890; Gerhard et al., 1983; Rodda & Marsh, 2011). In the Dutch delta area an outbreak of avian botulism (over 60 000 cadavers counted) was attributed to the prevailing low water levels, water quality problems combined with the high temperatures during summer (Gerhard et al., 1983). The considerable fall of groundwater levels had a particular impact on oligotrophic wetland habitats in the Netherlands (van der Heijde, 1978; Sykora, 1979). Noted (detrimental) effects of the drought on sites of nature conservation interest in Britain were documented by Hearn & Gilbert (1977 in Dornkamp et al., 1980). Devastating wildfires were widespread in the summer of 1976, again Southern England (up to 40 fold number of fires than in 1974, Dornkamp et al., 1980) and regions in Northern France (three fold area burnt compared to a reference year, Brochet et al., 1977) were severely affected. Besides direct fire damage, European woodlands and forests suffered from the prolonged drought stress and increased incidence of diseases such as the Dutch elm disease, in particular increased dieback of beech and birch was observed (Courvoisier et al., 1977, van der Heijde 1977, Dornkamp et al. 1980; Gibbs & Greig, 1977).

Impact Detail Table

Drought Event Country Start Date End Date Impact Impact Category Impact Description NUTS 1 NUTS 2 NUTS 3 Reference
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1975 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Water supplies decreased rapidly till March 1976 due to the drought beginning in 1975, meaning a threat for regional water availability. Some emergency measures had to be implemented, overall only occasional failure of supply occurred South East; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Isle of Wight; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1975 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Water supplies decreased rapidly till March 1976 due to the drought beginning in 1975, meaning a threat for regional water availability. Some emergency measures had to be implemented, overall only occasional failure of supply occurred South East; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Isle of Wight; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Water supplies decreased rapidly till March 1976 due to the drought beginning in 1975, meaning a threat for regional water availability. Some emergency measures had to be implemented, overall only occasional failure of supply occurred South East; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Isle of Wight; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1975 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supplies decreased rapidly till March 1976 due to the drought beginning in 1975, meaning a threat for regional water availability. Some emergency measures had to be implemented, overall only occasional failure of supply occurred South East; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Isle of Wight; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1975 6/1975 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) A rapid increase of water demand due to the drought led to distribution problems in some districts, such as the Thames Valley. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1975 8/1975 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality Water temperature records for the River Exe at Thorverton between January 1974 and December 1977 show that MayAugust 1976 and to a lesser extent, JuneAugust 1975, were associated with monthly maximum and minimum temperatures considerably in excess of those recorded in the more 'normal' years of 1974 and 1977. The maximum of 25.5oC recorded in June 1976 may be compared with 20.8 and 18.8oC for the same month in 1974 and 1977. These increased temperatures can be attributed to higher air temperatures, increased solar radiation and the low streamflow volumes reducing both the mass transfer of water through a reach and thermal inertia associated with heat exchange at the surface of the water. South West Devon Torbay Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1975 6/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) A rapid increase of water demand due to the drought led to distribution problems in some districts, such as the Thames Valley. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1975 6/1975 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) One Month after the beginning of the drought, Water Authorities were forced to start measurements towards water saving in case of longer lasting drought. This led to restrictions for water users in some regions. South West; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1975 6/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) One Month after the beginning of the drought, Water Authorities were forced to start measurements towards water saving in case of longer lasting drought. This led to restrictions for water users in some regions. South West; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water was temporarily pumped from the River Wharfe by Yorkshire Water into the Leeds water supply reservoirs which were at risk of losing supplies in early summer. This delayed the decision to erect standpipes in Leeds. Yorkshire and The Humber West Yorkshire Leeds The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1975 6/1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) One Month after the beginning of the drought, Water Authorities were forced to start measurements towards water saving in case of longer lasting drought. This led to restrictions for water users in some regions. South West; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Water was temporarily pumped from the River Nidd by Yorkshire Water into the Leeds water supply reservoirs which were at risk of losing supplies in early summer. This delayed the decision to erect standpipes in Leeds. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire North Yorkshire CC The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water was temporarily pumped from the River Nidd by Yorkshire Water into the Leeds water supply reservoirs which were at risk of losing supplies in early summer. This delayed the decision to erect standpipes in Leeds. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire North Yorkshire CC The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1975 8/1975 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) Water temperature records for the River Exe at Thorverton between January 1974 and December 1977 show that MayAugust 1976 and to a lesser extent, JuneAugust 1975, were associated with monthly maximum and minimum temperatures considerably in excess of those recorded in the more 'normal' years of 1974 and 1977. The maximum of 25.5oC recorded in June 1976 may be compared with 20.8 and 18.8oC for the same month in 1974 and 1977. These increased temperatures can be attributed to higher air temperatures, increased solar radiation and the low streamflow volumes reducing both the mass transfer of water through a reach and thermal inertia associated with heat exchange at the surface of the water. South West Devon Torbay Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Water was temporarily pumped from the River Wharfe by Yorkshire Water into the Leeds water supply reservoirs which were at risk of losing supplies in early summer. This delayed the decision to erect standpipes in Leeds. Yorkshire and The Humber West Yorkshire Leeds The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1975 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Levels of many reservoirs fell rapidly throughout the country due to high demand and high evaporation rates. Reservoirs in the south west supplying Bude, Bideford, Barnstable, Torbay, Minehead and Yeovil were sufficiently low to cause difficulties and there were also problems arising from the limited stocks in southern Yorkshire. South West; Yorkshire and The Humber; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Devon; Dorset and Somerset; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Torbay; Somerset; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1975 1/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Jan 1976 or Pontsticill Reservoir is full compensation flow to be reduced from 4.2mgd to 2.1mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys;East Wales Central Valleys;Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1975 1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) The areas covered by hosepipe bans were enlarged during July to take in a substantial part of Wales, west Somerset and portions of East Anglia. These regions were facing a rapid depletion of reservoirs and simultaneously rising water demand. Wales; South West; East Of England; Dorset and Somerset; East Anglia; Somerset; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1975 1975 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) The areas covered by hosepipe bans were enlarged during July to take in a substantial part of Wales, west Somerset and portions of East Anglia. These regions were facing a rapid depletion of reservoirs and simultaneously rising water demand. Wales; South West; East Of England; Dorset and Somerset; East Anglia; Somerset; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1975 1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) The areas covered by hosepipe bans were enlarged during July to take in a substantial part of Wales, west Somerset and portions of East Anglia. These regions were facing a rapid depletion of reservoirs and simultaneously rising water demand. Wales; South West; East Of England; Dorset and Somerset; East Anglia; Somerset; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1975 1/1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Jan 1976 or Llwyon Reservoir is full compensation flow to be reduced from 4.0mgd to 2.0mgd below the dam and from 5.75mgd to 3.75mgd at Ffrwd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Central Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Levels of many reservoirs fell rapidly throughout the country due to high demand and high evaporation rates. Reservoirs in the south west supplying Bude, Bideford, Barnstable, Torbay, Minehead and Yeovil were sufficiently low to cause difficulties and there were also problems arising from the limited stocks in southern Yorkshire. South West; Yorkshire and The Humber; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Devon; Dorset and Somerset; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Torbay; Somerset; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1975 1/1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Jan 1976 or Pontsticill Reservoir is full compensation flow to be reduced from 4.2mgd to 2.1mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys;East Wales Central Valleys;Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1975 1/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Jan 1976 or Pontsticill Reservoir is full compensation flow to be reduced from 4.2mgd to 2.1mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys;East Wales Central Valleys;Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1975 1/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Jan 1976 or Llwyon Reservoir is full compensation flow to be reduced from 4.0mgd to 2.0mgd below the dam and from 5.75mgd to 3.75mgd at Ffrwd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Central Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1975 1/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Jan 1976 or Llwyon Reservoir is full compensation flow to be reduced from 4.0mgd to 2.0mgd below the dam and from 5.75mgd to 3.75mgd at Ffrwd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Central Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 8/1975 9/1975 12.1 Increased burned area Drought-induced wildfires destroyed 200 km² forest area and several telephone lines. Additionally, numerous game damages occurred. The wildfires led to traffic restrictions, as several highways and railways were closed. Nine towns and 3000 people had to be evacuated and 100 people were injured and five people died. The overall loss amounted to EUR 20 million. Niedersachsen; Sachsen-Anhalt; Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; Münchener Rückversicherungsgesellschaft (1999). Naturkatastrophen in Deutschland - Schadenerfahrungen und Schadenpotentiale. München.
1975-76 Europe Danmark 8/1975 1975 12.2 Increased number of wildfires A record number of forest, heather and field fires was reported in Denmark, where the heat was the worst in recorded meteorological history. On the Jutland peninsula, local fire services and civil defence units had been called to more than 100 fires in less than 2 days. Danmark; Eugene Register-Guard - Aug 11, 1975, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 8/1975 8/1975 12.5 Increased costs/economic losses Drought induced wildfires caused an estimated market loss of EUR 20 million. Niedersachsen; Münchener Rückversicherungsgesellschaft (1999). Naturkatastrophen in Deutschland - Schadenerfahrungen und Schadenpotentiale. München.
1975-76 Europe Ireland 8/1975 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock During August however, soil moisture became depleted and for a period in late August and early September grass growth was seriously retarded. Ireland; Southern and Eastern; South-East (IRL, NULL, NULL); S.S.O Laoghog, 01/79, Dublin, International Memorandum, "The Dry Period October 1974 to August 1976"
1975-76 Europe España 8/1975 8/1975 12.2 Increased number of wildfires High temperatures and a precipitation deficit caused several wildfires. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 8/1975 9/1975 12.3 Increased severity of wildfires Drought-induced wildfires destroyed 200 km² forest area and several telephone lines. Additionally, numerous game damages occurred. The wildfires led to traffic restrictions, as several highways and railways were closed. Nine towns and 3000 people had to be evacuated and 100 people were injured and five people died. The overall loss amounted to EUR 20 million. Niedersachsen; Sachsen-Anhalt; Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; Münchener Rückversicherungsgesellschaft (1999). Naturkatastrophen in Deutschland - Schadenerfahrungen und Schadenpotentiale. München.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 8/1975 8/1975 14.1 Heat stress problems (if drought is associated with a heatwave) Over 70 people were hospitalized after heat-wave-induced breakdowns. Nordrhein-Westfalen; Köln; Köln, Kreisfreie Stadt; Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Danmark 8/1975 1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) High temperatures and a precipitation deficit led to crop losses. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 8/1975 1975 12.2 Increased number of wildfires Lunenburg: In the 9th of August twenty fires raged through the heath-parched forests of Northern Germany and six firemen died. Niedersachsen; Lüneburg; Eugene Register-Guard - Aug 11, 1975, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Danmark 8/1975 1975 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) High temperatures and a precipitation deficit led to crop losses. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe France 8/1975 8/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) High temperatures and a precipitation deficit led to shortages of drinking water supplies. Île De France; Île de France; Paris; Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Ireland 8/1975 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock During August however, soil moisture became depleted and for a period in late August and early September grass growth was seriously retarded. Ireland; Border, Midland and Western; West; S.S.O Laoghog, 01/79, Dublin, International Memorandum, "The Dry Period October 1974 to August 1976"
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 8/1975 9/1975 12.5 Increased costs/economic losses Drought-induced wildfires destroyed 200 km² forest area and several telephone lines. Additionally, numerous game damages occurred. The wildfires led to traffic restrictions, as several highways and railways were closed. Nine towns and 3000 people had to be evacuated and 100 people were injured and five people died. The overall loss amounted to EUR 20 million. Niedersachsen; Sachsen-Anhalt; Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; Münchener Rückversicherungsgesellschaft (1999). Naturkatastrophen in Deutschland - Schadenerfahrungen und Schadenpotentiale. München.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 9/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Durleigh reservoir, which services the Bridgwater area, held only 11% of its capacity. South West; Dorset and Somerset; Somerset; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or Llyn Teifi is full compensation flow of 0.2mgd to be discontinued. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or until both Llyn Aled and Aled Isaf Reservoirs are full, the residual flow at Bryn Aled weir may be reduced from 5mgd to 2.5mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or until both Llyn Aled and Aled Isaf Reservoirs are full, the residual flow at Bryn Aled weir may be reduced from 5mgd to 2.5mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Dec 1975 up to 4mgd may be taken from Llyn Aled below the existing minimum draw off level. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 9/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In the south west the levels in many reservoirs were very low, causing problems for water supplies in some regions. South West; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 9/1975 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In the south west the levels in many reservoirs were very low, causing problems for water supplies in some regions. South West; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 9/1975 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Durleigh reservoir, which services the Bridgwater area, held only 11% of its capacity. South West; Dorset and Somerset; Somerset; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or Lower Carno Reservoir is full compensation flow to be reduced from 208,105gpd to 58,105gpd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or Llyn Egant is full compensation flow of 0.054mgd to be discontinued. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or Llyn Egant is full compensation flow of 0.054mgd to be discontinued. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or until both Llyn Teifi and Llyn Egant are full 0.5mgd may be abstracted from the Teifi at SN 75706613. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or until both Llyn Teifi and Llyn Egant are full 0.5mgd may be abstracted from the Teifi at SN 75706613. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or until both Llyn Teifi and Llyn Egant are full 0.5mgd may be abstracted from the Teifi at SN 75706613. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or until both Llyn Teifi and Llyn Egant are full 0.5mgd may be abstracted from the Teifi at SN 75706613. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or Grwyne Fawr Reservoir is full compensation flow to be reduced from 0.75mgd to 0.25mgd. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or Grwyne Fawr Reservoir is full compensation flow to be reduced from 0.75mgd to 0.25mgd. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or Lower Carno Reservoir is full compensation flow to be reduced from 208,105gpd to 58,105gpd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or Lower Carno Reservoir is full compensation flow to be reduced from 208,105gpd to 58,105gpd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 up to 4mgd may be taken from Llyn Aled below the existing minimum draw off level. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or Llyn Teifi is full compensation flow of 0.2mgd to be discontinued. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or Llyn Teifi is full compensation flow of 0.2mgd to be discontinued. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 up to 4mgd may be taken from Llyn Aled below the existing minimum draw off level. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or until both Llyn Aled and Aled Isaf Reservoirs are full, the residual flow at Bryn Aled weir may be reduced from 5mgd to 2.5mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or until both Llyn Aled and Aled Isaf Reservoirs are full, the residual flow at Bryn Aled weir may be reduced from 5mgd to 2.5mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or Grwyne Fawr Reservoir is full compensation flow to be reduced from 0.75mgd to 0.25mgd. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or until both Llyn Teifi and Llyn Egant are full 0.5mgd may be abstracted from the Teifi at SN 75706613. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or until both Llyn Teifi and Llyn Egant are full 0.5mgd may be abstracted from the Teifi at SN 75706613. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or Llyn Egant is full compensation flow of 0.054mgd to be discontinued. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or until both Llyn Aled and Aled Isaf Reservoirs are full, the residual flow at Bryn Aled weir may be reduced from 5mgd to 2.5mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1975 12/1975 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Dec 1975 or until both Llyn Aled and Aled Isaf Reservoirs are full, the residual flow at Bryn Aled weir may be reduced from 5mgd to 2.5mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 10/1975 1/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Until Jan 1976 the prescribed flow at Ponthir gauging station shall be reduced from 27cusecs to 20cusecs. When flow is above the prescribed 1mgd, water may be abstracted from Afon Lwyd at Pontnewynydd Springs. When flow at Ponthir is less than 27cusecs a quantity of clean water will be added to the river at ST 301988 equal to the amount abstracted at Pontnewynydd Springs. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 10/1975 1/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Until Jan 1976 the prescribed flow at Ponthir gauging station shall be reduced from 27cusecs to 20cusecs. When flow is above the prescribed 1mgd, water may be abstracted from Afon Lwyd at Pontnewynydd Springs. When flow at Ponthir is less than 27cusecs a quantity of clean water will be added to the river at ST 301988 equal to the amount abstracted at Pontnewynydd Springs. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 10/1975 1/1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Until Jan 1976 the prescribed flow at Ponthir gauging station shall be reduced from 27cusecs to 20cusecs. When flow is above the prescribed 1mgd, water may be abstracted from Afon Lwyd at Pontnewynydd Springs. When flow at Ponthir is less than 27cusecs a quantity of clean water will be added to the river at ST 301988 equal to the amount abstracted at Pontnewynydd Springs. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe France 10/1975 10/1976 4.1 Reduced hydropower production while almost 11 months of 1976, reduced hydropower production Méditerranée Languedoc-Roussillion F. Gazelle, Les répercussions des étiages de 1976 sur l´ hydroélectricité languedocienne; La Houille Blanche n.1 / 1979
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 11/1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Headwater recession (in some cases hundreds of metres) of Winterbourne streams in the Berkshire Downs as a result of decreased ground water levels - 23m below normal levels - River Pang. South East Day J.B.W & Rodda J.C. 1978 'The effects of the 19751976 drought on groundwater and aquifers' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,5568
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 11/1975 11/1975 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) There were some failures of water supplies in isolated communities. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 11/1975 11/1975 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) There were some failures of water supplies in isolated communities. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 11/1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Headwater recession (in some cases hundreds of metres) of Winterbourne streams in the Berkshire Downs as a result of decreased ground water levels - 23m below normal levels - River Kennet. South East Day J.B.W & Rodda J.C. 1978 'The effects of the 19751976 drought on groundwater and aquifers' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,5568
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 11/1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Headwater recession (in some cases hundreds of metres) of Winterbourne streams in the Berkshire Downs as a result of decreased ground water levels - 23m below normal levels - River Pang. South East Day J.B.W & Rodda J.C. 1978 'The effects of the 19751976 drought on groundwater and aquifers' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,5568
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 11/1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Headwater recession (in some cases hundreds of metres) of Winterbourne streams in the Berkshire Downs as a result of decreased ground water levels - 23m below normal levels - River Kennet. South East Day J.B.W & Rodda J.C. 1978 'The effects of the 19751976 drought on groundwater and aquifers' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,5568
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 11/1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Headwater recession (in some cases hundreds of metres) of Winterbourne streams in the Berkshire Downs as a result of decreased ground water levels - 23m below normal levels - River Lambourn. South East Day J.B.W & Rodda J.C. 1978 'The effects of the 19751976 drought on groundwater and aquifers' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,5568
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 11/1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Headwater recession (in some cases hundreds of metres) of Winterbourne streams in the Berkshire Downs as a result of decreased ground water levels - 23m below normal levels - River Lambourn. South East Day J.B.W & Rodda J.C. 1978 'The effects of the 19751976 drought on groundwater and aquifers' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,5568
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Prolific growths of algae in sewage lagoons caused an apparent deterioration in terms of suspended solids in the qualities of these effluents discharged to rivers. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) Prolific growths of algae in sewage lagoons caused an apparent deterioration in terms of suspended solids in the qualities of these effluents discharged to rivers. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SouthWest Water Authority area. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality Prolific growths of algae in sewage lagoons caused an apparent deterioration in terms of suspended solids in the qualities of these effluents discharged to rivers. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Ardleigh Reservoir was subject to severe stratification. Air injection systems were installed to prevent the deterioration in raw water quality. Air injection systems were installed to prevent the deterioration in raw water quality. East Of England Essex Essex CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) High temperatures dried out the surface of many percolating filters, resulting in the death of the organisms responsible for oxidising organic matter. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) High temperatures dried out the surface of many percolating filters, resulting in the death of the organisms responsible for oxidising organic matter. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality High temperatures dried out the surface of many percolating filters, resulting in the death of the organisms responsible for oxidising organic matter. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) High temperatures decreased the amount of dissolved oxygen that could be introduced into activated sludge. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) High temperatures decreased the amount of dissolved oxygen that could be introduced into activated sludge. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality High temperatures decreased the amount of dissolved oxygen that could be introduced into activated sludge. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.6 other Water was pumped back over four weirs by Thames Water at a rate between 9 and 13 Ml/day to a temporary intake point below Eynsham weir. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire Hamlin M.J. & Wright C.E. 1978 'The effects of drought on the river systems' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,6996
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water was pumped back over four weirs by Thames Water at a rate between 9 and 13 Ml/day to a temporary intake point below Eynsham weir. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire Hamlin M.J. & Wright C.E. 1978 'The effects of drought on the river systems' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,6996
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 11.3 Structural damages on infrastructures due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Some field banks collapsed because of the combined effects of the drought and the heavy subsequent rainfall. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 11.1 Drought-related erosion processes (loss of soil fertility) Some field banks collapsed because of the combined effects of the drought and the heavy subsequent rainfall. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) The public faced restrictions of water usage. There has been a ban for the use of hosepipes, for watering private gardens and washing cars from early summer 1975 till late autumn 1976. Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 High temperatures dried out the surface of many percolating filters, resulting in the death of the organisms responsible for oxidising organic matter. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Due to high demand for water supply, consents to sink boreholes were granted - Wye catchment 14 consents were granted for industry, agriculture, supply and recreation purposes - 2mgd. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Gloucestershire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Many works suffered from denitrification in final sedimentation tanks resulting in problems of rising sludge caused by entrapped nitrogen released in this process. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 The flows to many small sewage treatment works ceased for long periods, particularly at night time, which resulted in problems with the dosing rate on the percolating filters and the management of activated sludge plants due to the development of abnormal sludge characteristics. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 The increased retention of sewage in the sewerage system meant many sewers functioned as sedimentation tanks resulting in a large increase in complaints about the smell from rising mains and pumping stations etc. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 There was a high fire risk on the North York Moors and many sections were closed to public access, even so, there were more than 60 fires devastating 750ha on Rosedale, Glaisdale and Wheeddale moors. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire North Yorkshire CC Arnett R.R. 1980 'Soil erosion and heather burning on the North York Moors' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 As a result of decreased flow, crude sewages were stronger, i.e. They possessed more biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids per unit volume but the load remained constant. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe Norge 1975 1975 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) The drought in Eastern parts of Norway leading to slaughtering of cattle because of reduced fodder. Milk transported from the western to the eastern Norway. Norge; Aftenposten-1975-07-11, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Norge 1975 1975 1.6 Forced reduction of stock(early selling/slaughtering) The drought in Eastern parts of Norway leading to slaughtering of cattle because of reduced fodder. Milk transported from the western to the eastern Norway. Norge; Aftenposten-1975-07-11, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 6.5 other Salmon catches in rivers were substantially smaller, probably because of the problems with migration and in some rivers they were only 50% of the long term average. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. West Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. West Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. East Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. East Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. Yorkshire and The Humber The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. Yorkshire and The Humber The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 10/1976 1.8 other As river flows began to diminish, severe saline incursions occurred in the lower reaches of many rivers in Anglia resulting in a large chloride content. Many cattle were poisoned by drinking from rivers, one died - Wash Counter Drain/Old Bedford River and on the Bure Marshes in Norfolk. East Of England East Anglia Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe Norge 1975 1975 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock The drought in Eastern parts of Norway leading to slaughtering of cattle because of reduced fodder. Milk transported from the western to the eastern Norway. Norge; Aftenposten-1975-07-11, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Towards the end of the drought the chloride content increased on the River Stour, Essex, as a result of the increased proportion of sewage effluent discharging to the river compared with the diminishing flow from groundwater sources. East Of England Essex Essex CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 There was a high fire risk on the North York Moors and many sections were closed to public access, even so, there were more than 60 fires devastating 750ha on Rosedale, Glaisdale and Wheeddale moors. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire Arnett R.R. 1980 'Soil erosion and heather burning on the North York Moors' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Pitsford Reservoir was subject to severe stratification. Air injection systems were installed to prevent the deterioration in raw water quality. Air injection systems were installed to prevent the deterioration in raw water quality. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire) Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 The high temperatures shortened the drying periods for sludge in sludge drying beds. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Due to high demand for water supply, consents to sink boreholes were granted - Wye catchment 14 consents were granted for industry, agriculture, supply and recreation purposes - 2mgd. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Gloucestershire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 High temperatures decreased the amount of dissolved oxygen that could be introduced into activated sludge. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Due to the fire risk, farmers baled their straw rather than risk the dangers of fire from burning. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Grassland production was severely restricted in 1976 as it was in the summer of 1975 Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 There was a high fire risk on the North York Moors and many sections were closed to public access, even so, there were more than 60 fires devastating 750ha on Rosedale, Glaisdale and Wheeddale moors. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire Arnett R.R. 1980 'Soil erosion and heather burning on the North York Moors' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Prolific growths of algae in sewage lagoons caused an apparent deterioration in terms of suspended solids in the qualities of these effluents discharged to rivers. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock Reports of backleg were reported to be associated with the ingestion of soil where the stock were on bare pasture. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.8 other Reports of backleg were reported to be associated with the ingestion of soil where the stock were on bare pasture. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.8 other Near Corwen, Clywd, Wales, about 1250ha of sheep grazing was destroyed together with many miles of fencing - the cost of restoration will be high and it will take many years to restore the area to a reasonable level of productivity. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.8 other Pasteurellosis in turkeys was responsible for a 2% fatality due to poor ventilation during hot conditions. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.8 other An absolute deprivation of water was reported to be responsible for losses of sheep in parts of the north. This occurred in open moorland, water carting being delayed until it was too late. Yorkshire and The Humber Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.6 Forced reduction of stock(early selling/slaughtering) There were problems with the storage of water and in some places although water was available there was not enough space because of increased demand. Extra trough space would have to be supplied. In one example, a dairy herd with an average milk yield of 23l per cow per day was drinking about 63.5 litres of water per cow per day. At periods of peak demand, the troughs were dry leading to restlessness and reduced milk yield. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.8 other There were problems with the storage of water and in some places although water was available there was not enough space because of increased demand. Extra trough space would have to be supplied. In one example, a dairy herd with an average milk yield of 23l per cow per day was drinking about 63.5 litres of water per cow per day. At periods of peak demand, the troughs were dry leading to restlessness and reduced milk yield. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) At Bridgets Experimental Husbandry Farm, Hampshire, milk yield decreased by 270 litres per cow and supplementary feeding was necessary at a rate of 150kg per cow. For 250 cows this led to a net loss of income of £8500. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Isle of Wight Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses The drought during 1975 and 1976 was estimated to have cost the South West Water Authority 1.1 Mio. £ due to needed actions towards depletion of water supplies and distribution problems in some areas, including increased staff, causing additional costs. South West; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses At Bridgets Experimental Husbandry Farm, Hampshire, milk yield decreased by 270 litres per cow and supplementary feeding was necessary at a rate of 150kg per cow. For 250 cows this led to a net loss of income of £8500. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Isle of Wight Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.8 other An absolute deprivation of water was reported to be responsible for losses of sheep in parts of the north. This occurred in open moorland, water carting being delayed until it was too late. North West Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.8 other An absolute deprivation of water was reported to be responsible for losses of sheep in parts of the north. This occurred in open moorland, water carting being delayed until it was too late. North East Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Yields were low resulting in increased prices for consumers. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses Yields were low resulting in increased prices for consumers. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) The need to augment and to conserve supplies and the measures adopted to pursue these policies caused a large number of operating problems for water authorities. For example, reductions in pressure and variations in pressure led to flushing out of deposits and scale and the ingress of soil bacteria. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) The need to augment and to conserve supplies and the measures adopted to pursue these policies caused a large number of operating problems for water authorities. For example, reductions in pressure and variations in pressure led to flushing out of deposits and scale and the ingress of soil bacteria. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.8 Problems with drinking water quality (e.g., increased treatment, violation of standards) The need to augment and to conserve supplies and the measures adopted to pursue these policies caused a large number of operating problems for water authorities. For example, reductions in pressure and variations in pressure led to flushing out of deposits and scale and the ingress of soil bacteria. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.8 Problems with drinking water quality (e.g., increased treatment, violation of standards) Deterioration in water quality was a problem for some districts. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.9 Problems with bathing water quality Deterioration in water quality was a problem for some districts. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.6 other Operational problems were caused by blockages of sewers due to a formation of settled solids following reduction in the volumes of water entering them. At sewage works, sewage strength increased and biological filters tended to dry out. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.12 other Operational problems were caused by blockages of sewers due to a formation of settled solids following reduction in the volumes of water entering them. At sewage works, sewage strength increased and biological filters tended to dry out. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 3.1 Reduced (freshwater) fishery production (please specify fish species in the description field) The drought was of great concern to fisheries, causing substantial reductions in compensation waters, very low water levels and high temperatures and leading to higher mortalities. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 3.2 Reduced aquaculture production (please specify fish species in the description field) The drought was of great concern to fisheries, causing substantial reductions in compensation waters, very low water levels and high temperatures and leading to higher mortalities. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) 21,000 properties were cut off in SouthWest England. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.8 other Injuries to cows were reported in some areas of the Midlands where the dry weather had resulted in a polishing and hardening of hooves with a result that cattle slipped on dry surfaces causing bruising and in some cases broken legs. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock Saline intrusion into waters used for cattle drinking were reported from a number of areas due to saline water coming further upstream than usual or leaking through sluices. Freshwater deliveries were made to farmers affected as high salt content is dangerous to cattle. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) There were outbreaks of acute stress syndrome in pigs particularly during loading due to the heat. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 After moorland fires on Wheedale Moor at peak discharges more than twice the amount of total sediment was flushed out after the fire compared with previously, while the organic component increased by a factor of 3. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire Arnett R.R. 1980 'Soil erosion and heather burning on the North York Moors' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 The low flows that characterised summer 1975 continued throughout the winter of 19756 leading to several problems - there was a marked increase in ammonia in rivers whose flows were largely made up of sewage effluents. The lower ambient temperature during the winter reduced the nitrification rate in sewage works and in the rivers. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 The quantities of cess pool and septic tank liquors disposed to sewage treatment works diminished considerably and in some places ceased all together this was reflected in decreased sludge production. In the Norwich Sewage Division this amounted to a reduction of 15%. East Of England East Anglia Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Increased retention time of sewerage in the sewers due to low flows/runoff led to an increase in complaints about the smell. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 The increased retention of sewage in the sewerage system meant many sewers functioned as sedimentation tanks resulting in a large increase in complaints about the smell from rising mains and pumping stations etc. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 The flows to many small sewage treatment works ceased for long periods, particularly at night time, which resulted in problems with the dosing rate on the percolating filters and the management of activated sludge plants due to the development of abnormal sludge characteristics. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. Yorkshire and The Humber The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. East Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. West Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SouthWest Water Authority area. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Increase in the conservative substances in the rivers - phosphate. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Increase in the conservative substances in the rivers - chloride. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) During the dry weather nitrates accumulated in soils and when the drought broke they were flushed into river systems once soils were saturated. This pattern was more pronounced in clay catchments, where nitrate concentrations peaked for a couple of days and returned to baseline conditions, than permeable catchments. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Fish kill in Sutton Bingham Reservoir - a result of reduced oxygen production from photosynthesis during cloudy weather and continued algal decay resulting in an oxygen deficit. The change in weather may also have caused an overturn in the water bringing poor quality bottom water to the surface affecting more of the reservoir. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Rota cuts in place in Wales for 13 hours per day (7pm8am), this was later extended to 17 hours per day. Cuts continued after rains started due to continued drought conditions in other regions, but the public became restive and cuts were ended in some places just as reservoirs approached overflow levels. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Rota cuts in place in Wales for 13 hours per day (7pm8am), this was later extended to 17 hours per day. Cuts continued after rains started due to continued drought conditions in other regions, but the public became restive and cuts were ended in some places just as reservoirs approached overflow levels. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) At Rosemaund Experimental Husbandry Farm, Hereford, 18 month old cattle were sold fat at 40kg below normal weight in spite of considerable supplementary feed. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Limited water supply in South Wales meant rotacuts were introduced. This led to variations in pressure and flushing of deposits from mains. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Limited water supply in South Wales meant rotacuts were introduced. This led to variations in pressure and flushing of deposits from mains. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Fish kill in Sutton Bingham Reservoir - a result of reduced oxygen production from photosynthesis during cloudy weather and continued algal decay resulting in an oxygen deficit. The change in weather may also have caused an overturn in the water bringing poor quality bottom water to the surface affecting more of the reservoir. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Fish kill in Sutton Bingham Reservoir - a result of reduced oxygen production from photosynthesis during cloudy weather and continued algal decay resulting in an oxygen deficit. The change in weather may also have caused an overturn in the water bringing poor quality bottom water to the surface affecting more of the reservoir. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Fish kill in Sutton Bingham Reservoir - a result of reduced oxygen production from photosynthesis during cloudy weather and continued algal decay resulting in an oxygen deficit. The change in weather may also have caused an overturn in the water bringing poor quality bottom water to the surface affecting more of the reservoir. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) In the Sedgemoor region of Somerset treated water for public supply was insufficient. The treatment works at the Royal Ordnance Factory (ROF) at Puriton was used to supplement supplies in the Polden Hills near Bridgewater. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In the Sedgemoor region of Somerset treated water for public supply was insufficient. The treatment works at the Royal Ordnance Factory (ROF) at Puriton was used to supplement supplies in the Polden Hills near Bridgewater. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low water supply availability - Temporary floating water treatment plants were developed to make use of alternative water sources - Newton Meadows abstracting from River Avon to augment supply to Bath. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset North and North East Somerset, South Gloucestershire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low water supply availability - Temporary floating water treatment plants were developed to make use of alternative water sources - Newton Meadows abstracting from River Avon to augment supply to Bath. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset North and North East Somerset, South Gloucestershire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 9/1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) Weaned calves at Redesdale Experimental Husbandry Farm, Northumberland, were 25kg below normal weight when sold in September. North East Tees Valley and Durham Northumberland Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Reserves of water in Grafham Water fell to critical levels - drainage of the ElyOuse was reversed (code name RODEO) to increase levels in Grafham Water. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Reserves of water in Grafham Water fell to critical levels - drainage of the ElyOuse was reversed (code name RODEO) to increase levels in Grafham Water. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Nitrification occurred for the first time on record at several works. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Many works suffered from denitrification in final sedimentation tanks resulting in problems of rising sludge caused by entrapped nitrogen released in this process. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below Pinkhill Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below Pinkhill Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below King's Eynsham Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below King's Eynsham Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below Godstow Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 2.3 Increased occurrence of water stress indicators and damage symptoms (e.g. premature ripening, seasoning checks, defoliation, worsened crown conditions etc.) (please specify forest type/tree species in the description field!) Forestry was affected by the drought years 1975 and 1976, in terms of damage to trees and their destruction by fire. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 12.1 Increased burned area Forestry was affected by the drought years 1975 and 1976, in terms of damage to trees and their destruction by fire. Forestry Commission fire losses in the summer of 1976 were the largest since the war nearly 2000 hectares being destroyed in England and Wales and a further 300 hectares in Scotland. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 2.3 Increased occurrence of water stress indicators and damage symptoms (e.g. premature ripening, seasoning checks, defoliation, worsened crown conditions etc.) (please specify forest type/tree species in the description field!) Premature browning as well as defoliation of trees often occurred on sites with shallow soils, sandy soils, and heavy clays and to those on south facing slopes. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 2.5 Increased dieback of trees (please specify tree species in the description field!) A considerable amount of newly planted hedgerows and woodland died. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 2.6 Increased dieback of planted tree seedlings (in nurseries or afforested area) A considerable amount of newly planted hedgerows and woodland died. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 2.3 Increased occurrence of water stress indicators and damage symptoms (e.g. premature ripening, seasoning checks, defoliation, worsened crown conditions etc.) (please specify forest type/tree species in the description field!) The dry weather hastened the decline of trees with diseased roots and forced the spread of disease such like the sooty bark disease which affects sycamore. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 2.4 Increase of pest/disease attacks on trees (please specify species in the description field!) The dry weather hastened the decline of trees with diseased roots and forced the spread of disease such like the sooty bark disease which affects sycamore. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below Godstow Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below Osney Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.4 Reduction of cultivated areas due to a lack of irrigation water At the Clapham intake on the River Great Ouse it was necessary towards the end of the drought to limit river abstraction because of difficulties in treating the increased algal concentrations in the river and the large chloride content which for the first time exceeded 100mg/l. At the Clapham intake on the River Great Ouse it was necessary towards the end of the drought to limit river abstraction because of difficulties in treating the increased algal concentrations in the river and the large chloride content which for the first time exceeded 100mg/l. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Bedfordshire CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. The autumn rains after the dry weather resulted in a rapid swelling of fruit with a low calcium concentration. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. The drought caused premature leaf drop from fruit plants and very small fruit with severe skin cracking and russetting of apples. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below Osney Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below Iffley Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below Iffley Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 6mgd was transferred from below Teddington Weir on the Thames for abstraction. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 6mgd was transferred from below Teddington Weir on the Thames for abstraction. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 30mgd was transferred from below Molesey Weir where the Rivers Mole and Hogsmill join the Teddington reach of the Thames for abstraction. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex Surrey The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 30mgd was transferred from below Molesey Weir where the Rivers Mole and Hogsmill join the Teddington reach of the Thames for abstraction. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex Surrey The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) In the South West, water was abstracted from the River Tamar for transfer via the Towy to Plymouth. South West Devon Plymouth The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In the South West, water was abstracted from the River Tamar for transfer via the Towy to Plymouth. South West Devon Plymouth The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low water supply - disused boreholes examined and reinstated and new bore holes drilled to raise discharges to original flow rates where yields had diminished - Wessex Region. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low water supply - disused boreholes examined and reinstated and new bore holes drilled to raise discharges to original flow rates where yields had diminished - Wessex Region. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low water supply - disused boreholes examined and reinstated and new bore holes drilled to raise discharges to original flow rates where yields had diminished - Thames Region. South East The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low water supply - disused boreholes examined and reinstated and new bore holes drilled to raise discharges to original flow rates where yields had diminished - Thames Region. South East The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low water supply - disused boreholes examined and reinstated and new bore holes drilled to raise discharges to original flow rates where yields had diminished - Thames Region. London The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low water supply - disused boreholes examined and reinstated and new bore holes drilled to raise discharges to original flow rates where yields had diminished - Thames Region. London The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low water supply - Wilminstone Quarry was used by South West as a source for a third of a million gallons per day to augment supplies in the Tavistock area of South Devon. South West Devon Torbay The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low water supply - Wilminstone Quarry was used by South West as a source for a third of a million gallons per day to augment supplies in the Tavistock area of South Devon. South West Devon Torbay The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) To enable water to be supplied to the Kesteven area of Lincolnshire a 24 inch main was installed carrying water 11 miles from Empingham to the headwaters of the River Witham system. East Midlands Lincolnshire Northamptonshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) To enable water to be supplied to the Kesteven area of Lincolnshire a 24 inch main was installed carrying water 11 miles from Empingham to the headwaters of the River Witham system. East Midlands Lincolnshire Northamptonshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Restricted calcium uptake brought about disorders of horticultural crops - tipburn in lettuce. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Restricted calcium uptake brought about disorders of horticultural crops - internal browning in Brussels sprouts and cabbage. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. There was reduced uptake of nitrogen and late applications of nitrogenous fertilizers tended to be ineffective. This led to large residues of nitrate in the soil. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. There was an increase in the occurrence of nutrient disorders and deficiencies of manganese in a wide range of crops. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. There was an increase in the occurrence of nutrient disorders and deficiencies of copper in cereals. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. There was an increase in the occurrence of nutrient disorders and deficiencies of molybdenum in brassicae. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. There was an increase in the occurrence of nutrient disorders and deficiencies of boron in root crops. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. There was an increase in the occurrence of nutrient disorders and deficiencies of potassium in barley. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Any soil defects restricting root development such as cultivation pans, severely affected crops by accentuating moisture stress during the hot weather. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. There was a slight increase in the number of infestations of stored grain by such unusual species such as the rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) that require higher than normal temperatures. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. There is evidence that the drought lessened the effectiveness of insecticides - granules were ineffective against cabbage root fly (Erioischia brassicae) in all areas except Northern England. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. There is evidence that the drought lessened the effectiveness of insecticides - granular insecticides were generally ineffective. Cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) was widespread and control by systematic insecticides was poor in all areas where treatment was considered necessary. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. There is evidence that the drought lessened the effectiveness of insecticides - brassica seed treatments were less effective against flea beetles (Crepidodera) than usual. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. There was an aggravation of the effects of pests when crops were under drought stress in general, fruit fly (Oscinella frit) damage was bad in cereal crops where the preceding grassland had been ploughed late in order to conserve forage. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe Danmark 1975 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Denmark breaking heat record from 1911. Plantation fires combined with poor growth due to the heat threatens to create a shortage of Christmas trees. Denmark exports tens of thousands of Christmas trees every year. Danmark; The Milwaukee Journal - Aug 11, 1975
1975-76 Europe Danmark 1975 12.5 Increased costs/economic losses Denmark breaking heat record from 1911. Plantation fires combined with poor growth due to the heat threatens to create a shortage of Christmas trees. Denmark exports tens of thousands of Christmas trees every year. Danmark; The Milwaukee Journal - Aug 11, 1975
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Due to high demand for water supply, consents to sink boreholes were granted - Wye catchment 14 consents were granted for industry, agriculture, supply and recreation purposes - 2mgd. Wales East Wales Monmouthshire and Newport;Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 As a result of decreased flow, crude sewages were stronger, i.e. They possessed more biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids per unit volume but the load remained constant. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Fire damage was severe in certain localities. Hedges were burned in many parts of the country, especially beside roads, commonland, grazings and scrubland - severe outbreaks in Southern England. South West Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. There was an aggravation of the effects of pests when crops were under drought stress - red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) damage on fruit was unusually severe in the east. East Of England Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality High temperatures and low flows resulted in fish mortalities for salmon and trout fisheries - Wales. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) High temperatures and low flows resulted in fish mortalities for salmon and trout fisheries - Wales. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.6 other Due to high demand for water supply, consents to sink boreholes were granted - Wye catchment 14 consents were granted for industry, agriculture, supply and recreation purposes - 2mgd. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Gloucestershire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Forestry was affected by the drought years 1975 and 1976, in terms of damage to trees and their destruction by fire. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom At the Clapham intake on the River Great Ouse it was necessary towards the end of the drought to limit river abstraction because of difficulties in treating the increased algal concentrations in the river and the large chloride content which for the first time exceeded 100mg/l. At the Clapham intake on the River Great Ouse it was necessary towards the end of the drought to limit river abstraction because of difficulties in treating the increased algal concentrations in the river and the large chloride content which for the first time exceeded 100mg/l. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Bedfordshire CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) The drought in 1975 and 1976 was a threat to public water supplies. Overall costs for satisfying public water demand were around 40 Mio. €. Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.1 Increased contact of wild animals under stress (shortage/lack of feed and water) with humans/human settlements In Devon a number of hedgerow trees, especially those growing on field banks, were dying in 1977 from the effects of the 1976 drought. South West Devon Torbay Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.1 Increased species mortality (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned) In Devon a number of hedgerow trees, especially those growing on field banks, were dying in 1977 from the effects of the 1976 drought. South West Devon Torbay Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other Cereal aphids (Macrosiphum avenae) built up to large numbers over a wide area. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other Virus diseases associated with poor quality seed and early aphid (Myzus persicae) infestations connected with high temperatures caused problems. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other The dry warm weather favoured cutworms (Noctuidae) and damage was widespread and severe - as much as 100% in some crops in Eastern England. East Of England Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other There was an aggravation of the effects of pests when crops were under drought stress - red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) damage on fruit was unusually severe in the east. East Of England Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other There was an aggravation of the effects of pests when crops were under drought stress in general, fruit fly (Oscinella frit) damage was bad in cereal crops where the preceding grassland had been ploughed late in order to conserve forage. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other There is evidence that the drought lessened the effectiveness of insecticides - brassica seed treatments were less effective against flea beetles (Crepidodera) than usual. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other There is evidence that the drought lessened the effectiveness of insecticides - granular insecticides were generally ineffective. Cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) was widespread and control by systematic insecticides was poor in all areas where treatment was considered necessary. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other There is evidence that the drought lessened the effectiveness of insecticides - granules were ineffective against cabbage root fly (Erioischia brassicae) in all areas except Northern England. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other There was a slight increase in the number of infestations of stored grain by such unusual species such as the rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) that require higher than normal temperatures. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 11.1 Drought-related erosion processes (loss of soil fertility) During the dry weather nitrates accumulated in soils and when the drought broke they were flushed into river systems once soils were saturated. This pattern was more pronounced in clay catchments, where nitrate concentrations peaked for a couple of days and returned to baseline conditions, than permeable catchments. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Some buildings in towns were affected by subsidence. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 11.3 Structural damages on infrastructures due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Severe damage was caused to roads in the Fen country with extensive cracking of the surface. Yorkshire and The Humber East Riding and North Lincolnshire North and North East Lincolnshire Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality High temperatures and low flows resulted in fish mortalities for salmon and trout fisheries - South West England. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 11.4 other Heavier soils developed wide and very deep cracks due to the moisture deficit. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 11.3 Structural damages on infrastructures due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Severe damage was caused to roads in the Fen country with extensive cracking of the surface. East Of England East Anglia Suffolk Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 11.3 Structural damages on infrastructures due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Severe damage was caused to roads in the Fen country with extensive cracking of the surface. East Of England East Anglia Norfolk Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 11.3 Structural damages on infrastructures due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Severe damage was caused to roads in the Fen country with extensive cracking of the surface. East Midlands Lincolnshire Lincolnshire Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 11.3 Structural damages on infrastructures due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Severe damage was caused to roads in the Fen country with extensive cracking of the surface. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) High temperatures and low flows resulted in fish mortalities for salmon and trout fisheries - South West England. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality The high temperatures shortened the drying periods for sludge in sludge drying beds. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) The high temperatures shortened the drying periods for sludge in sludge drying beds. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.6 other At the Clapham intake on the River Great Ouse it was necessary towards the end of the drought to limit river abstraction because of difficulties in treating the increased algal concentrations in the river and the large chloride content which for the first time exceeded 100mg/l. At the Clapham intake on the River Great Ouse it was necessary towards the end of the drought to limit river abstraction because of difficulties in treating the increased algal concentrations in the river and the large chloride content which for the first time exceeded 100mg/l. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Bedfordshire CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality As a result of excessively high water temperature 10t of table trout, 1.25t of brood fish and 300,000 fry were lost at a Lincolnshire fish farm. Yorkshire and The Humber East Riding and North Lincolnshire North and North East Lincolnshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) As a result of excessively high water temperature 10t of table trout, 1.25t of brood fish and 300,000 fry were lost at a Lincolnshire fish farm. Yorkshire and The Humber East Riding and North Lincolnshire North and North East Lincolnshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality As a result of excessively high water temperature 10t of table trout, 1.25t of brood fish and 300,000 fry were lost at a Lincolnshire fish farm. East Midlands Lincolnshire Northamptonshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) As a result of excessively high water temperature 10t of table trout, 1.25t of brood fish and 300,000 fry were lost at a Lincolnshire fish farm. East Midlands Lincolnshire Northamptonshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) Low flows in the Severn allowed salt water to flow over the top of a weir and pollute the canal water. Severn Trent Water installed inflatable weirs along the crest of the weir to limit the saline intrusion. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - increased iron in solution. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - increased manganese in solution. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - high ammonia content. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - thermal stratification. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - algal blooms. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) Low flows in the Severn allowed salt water to flow over the top of a weir and pollute the canal water. Severn Trent Water installed inflatable weirs along the crest of the weir to limit the saline intrusion. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Fire damage was severe in certain localities. Hedges were burned in many parts of the country, especially beside roads, commonland, grazings and scrubland - severe outbreaks in Southern England. South East Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 After moorland fires on Westerdale Moor net erosion is accelerated by a factor of 20 compared to soil erosion on ground covered by mature heather. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire Arnett R.R. 1980 'Soil erosion and heather burning on the North York Moors' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Due to high demand for water supply, consents to sink boreholes were granted - Wye catchment 14 consents were granted for industry, agriculture, supply and recreation purposes - 2mgd. Wales East Wales Monmouthshire and Newport;Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Increased retention time of sewerage in the sewers due to low flows/runoff led to an increase in complaints about the smell. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe Ireland 1975 Restrictions on the use of water were introduced. Ireland; S.S.O Laoghog, 01/79, Dublin, International Memorandum, "The Dry Period October 1974 to August 1976"
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Fire damage was severe in certain localities. Hedges were burned in many parts of the country, especially beside roads, commonland, grazings and scrubland - severe outbreaks in Wales. Wales Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 After moorland fires on Wheedale Moor at peak discharges more than twice the amount of total sediment was flushed out after the fire compared with previously, while the organic component increased by a factor of 3. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire Arnett R.R. 1980 'Soil erosion and heather burning on the North York Moors' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) Saline intrusion into waters used for cattle drinking were reported from a number of areas due to saline water coming further upstream than usual or leaking through sluices. Freshwater deliveries were made to farmers affected as high salt content is dangerous to cattle. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) The low flows that characterised summer 1975 continued throughout the winter of 19756 leading to several problems - there was a marked increase in ammonia in rivers whose flows were largely made up of sewage effluents. The lower ambient temperature during the winter reduced the nitrification rate in sewage works and in the rivers. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. Yorkshire and The Humber The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. East Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. West Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SevernTrent Water Authority area. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 10.11 other Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SouthWest Water Authority area. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.7 Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) Salmon catches in rivers were substantially smaller, probably because of the problems with migration and in some rivers they were only 50% of the long term average. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.3 Migration and concentration (loss of wildlife in some areas and too many in others) Salmon catches in rivers were substantially smaller, probably because of the problems with migration and in some rivers they were only 50% of the long term average. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Small freshwater flows failed to attract migrating salmon and seatrout into the rivers and fish passes failed to operate properly. The consequent concentration of fish in estuaries led to serious poaching problems and the deaths of many salmon were reported. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Small freshwater flows failed to attract migrating salmon and seatrout into the rivers and fish passes failed to operate properly. The consequent concentration of fish in estuaries led to serious poaching problems and the deaths of many salmon were reported. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.3 Migration and concentration (loss of wildlife in some areas and too many in others) Small freshwater flows failed to attract migrating salmon and seatrout into the rivers and fish passes failed to operate properly. The consequent concentration of fish in estuaries led to serious poaching problems and the deaths of many salmon were reported. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Small freshwater flows failed to attract migrating salmon and seatrout into the rivers and fish passes failed to operate properly. The consequent concentration of fish in estuaries led to serious poaching problems and the deaths of many salmon were reported. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Small freshwater flows failed to attract migrating salmon and seatrout into the rivers and fish passes failed to operate properly. The consequent concentration of fish in estuaries led to serious poaching problems and the deaths of many salmon were reported. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Nitrification occurred for the first time on record at several works. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 After moorland fires on Westerdale Moor net erosion is accelerated by a factor of 20 compared to soil erosion on ground covered by mature heather. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire Arnett R.R. 1980 'Soil erosion and heather burning on the North York Moors' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Woodland and heathland fires in the New Forest because of tinderdry conditions. Sewage effluent was tankered in to help put the fires out. Sewage effluent was tankered in to help put the fires out. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Hampshire CC The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.7 Increased salinity of groundwater Saline intrusion into groundwaters on the south coast and the Isle of Wight. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Isle of Wight The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.8 Problems with drinking water quality (e.g., increased treatment, violation of standards) There was a marked increase during the drought of complaints relating to discolouration which was directly attributed to the shortage of water available for flushing mains. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.8 Problems with drinking water quality (e.g., increased treatment, violation of standards) Consumers served by Ardleigh Reservoir experienced taste and odour problems. East Of England Essex Essex CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections High temperatures and low flows resulted in fish mortalities for salmon and trout fisheries - Wales. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) High temperatures and low flows resulted in fish mortalities for salmon and trout fisheries - Wales. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections High temperatures and low flows resulted in fish mortalities for salmon and trout fisheries - South West England. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) High temperatures and low flows resulted in fish mortalities for salmon and trout fisheries - South West England. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) 2,400 standpipes erected, mostly in front gardens due to most fire hydrants being in narrow Devon Lanes - although it started to rain when they were first used, high numbers of tourists and soil moisture deficits meant they were necessary. South West Devon Torbay The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Limited water supply in South West meant standpipes were used. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - increased iron in solution. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - increased manganese in solution. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - high ammonia content. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - thermal stratification. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - algal blooms. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Heavy rainfall following the drought resulted in the leaching of drainage from peat - the acid runoff led to major fish mortalities in the SouthWest Water Authority area. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Towards the end of the drought the chloride content increased on the River Stour, Essex, as a result of the increased proportion of sewage effluent discharging to the river compared with the diminishing flow from groundwater sources. East Of England Essex Essex CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) At the Clapham intake on the River Great Ouse it was necessary towards the end of the drought to limit river abstraction because of difficulties in treating the increased algal concentrations in the river and the large chloride content which for the first time exceeded 100mg/l. At the Clapham intake on the River Great Ouse it was necessary towards the end of the drought to limit river abstraction because of difficulties in treating the increased algal concentrations in the river and the large chloride content which for the first time exceeded 100mg/l. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Bedfordshire CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses The drought in 1975 and 1976 was a threat to public water supplies. Overall costs for satisfying public water demand were around 40 Mio. €. Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 Fire damage was severe in certain localities. Hedges were burned in many parts of the country, especially beside roads, commonland, grazings and scrubland - severe outbreaks in Southern England. London Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Eye diseases in cattle were more prevalent due to the activity of flies and dusty conditions. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections It is estimated that 250,000 fish died as a result of the exceptional conditions in natural watercourses in Anglian region during the drought. East Of England Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Damages of buildings due to land subsidence in London cost an estimated 800 million Euros. London; Fleig, A. K., L. M. Tallaksen, et al. (2011). "Regional hydrological drought in north-western Europe: linking a new Regional Drought Area Index with weather types." Hydrological Processes 25(7): 1163-1179.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 11.3 Structural damages on infrastructures due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Damages of buildings due to land subsidence in London cost an estimated 800 million Euros. London; Fleig, A. K., L. M. Tallaksen, et al. (2011). "Regional hydrological drought in north-western Europe: linking a new Regional Drought Area Index with weather types." Hydrological Processes 25(7): 1163-1179.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) It is estimated that 250,000 fish died as a result of the exceptional conditions in natural watercourses in Anglian region during the drought. East Of England Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 The quantities of cess pool and septic tank liquors disposed to sewage treatment works diminished considerably and in some places ceased all together this was reflected in decreased sludge production. In the Norwich Sewage Division this amounted to a reduction of 15%. East Of England East Anglia Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections As a result of excessively high water temperature 10t of table trout, 1.25t of brood fish and 300,000 fry were lost at a Lincolnshire fish farm. Yorkshire and The Humber East Riding and North Lincolnshire North and North East Lincolnshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Due to high demand for water supply, consents to sink boreholes were granted - Glamorgan catchment 12 consents were granted for industry, public health, sport and recreation purposes - 0.78mgd. Wales East Wales Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Due to high demand for water supply, consents to sink boreholes were granted - Glamorgan catchment 12 consents were granted for industry, public health, sport and recreation purposes - 0.78mgd. Wales East Wales Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Due to high demand for water supply, consents to sink boreholes were granted - Usk catchment 6 consents were granted for industry purposes - 0.4mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys;East Wales Gwent Valleys;Monmouthshire and Newport;Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Due to high demand for water supply, consents to sink boreholes were granted - Usk catchment 6 consents were granted for industry purposes - 0.4mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys;East Wales Gwent Valleys;Monmouthshire and Newport;Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Due to high demand for water supply, consents to sink boreholes were granted - Wye catchment 14 consents were granted for industry, agriculture, supply and recreation purposes - 2mgd. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Gloucestershire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.6 other Due to high demand for water supply, consents to sink boreholes were granted - Wye catchment 14 consents were granted for industry, agriculture, supply and recreation purposes - 2mgd. Wales East Wales Monmouthshire and Newport;Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Due to high demand for water supply, consents to sink boreholes were granted - Wye catchment 14 consents were granted for industry, agriculture, supply and recreation purposes - 2mgd. Wales East Wales Monmouthshire and Newport;Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) As a result of excessively high water temperature 10t of table trout, 1.25t of brood fish and 300,000 fry were lost at a Lincolnshire fish farm. Yorkshire and The Humber East Riding and North Lincolnshire North and North East Lincolnshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections As a result of excessively high water temperature 10t of table trout, 1.25t of brood fish and 300,000 fry were lost at a Lincolnshire fish farm. East Midlands Lincolnshire Northamptonshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Prolific growths of algae in sewage lagoons caused an apparent deterioration in terms of suspended solids in the qualities of these effluents discharged to rivers. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) High temperatures dried out the surface of many percolating filters, resulting in the death of the organisms responsible for oxidising organic matter. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) High temperatures decreased the amount of dissolved oxygen that could be introduced into activated sludge. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses At Bridgets Experimental Husbandry Farm, Hampshire, milk yield decreased by 270 litres per cow and supplementary feeding was necessary at a rate of 150kg per cow. For 250 cows this led to a net loss of income of £8500. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Isle of Wight Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 14.5 other It was difficult to obtain casual workers for glasshouse holdings because of the extreme heat. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) As a result of excessively high water temperature 10t of table trout, 1.25t of brood fish and 300,000 fry were lost at a Lincolnshire fish farm. East Midlands Lincolnshire Northamptonshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.11 Drying up of lakes and reservoirs (which have a habitat function) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - thermal stratification. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. The dry warm weather favoured cutworms (Noctuidae) and damage was widespread and severe - as much as 100% in some crops in Eastern England. East Of England Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Virus diseases associated with poor quality seed and early aphid (Myzus persicae) infestations connected with high temperatures caused problems. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. The main potato crop was severely affected - lack of moisture stopped growth and excessive heat promoted profound physiological effects. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.11 Drying up of lakes and reservoirs (which have a habitat function) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - high ammonia content. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Cereal aphids (Macrosiphum avenae) built up to large numbers over a wide area. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.11 Drying up of lakes and reservoirs (which have a habitat function) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - increased manganese in solution. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.11 Drying up of lakes and reservoirs (which have a habitat function) Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - increased iron in solution. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 6mgd was transferred from below Teddington Weir on the Thames for abstraction. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below Iffley Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below Osney Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below Godstow Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below King's Eynsham Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Low river flows resulted in limited supply - water was 2mgd was transferred from below Pinkhill Weir on the Thames for abstraction. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Reserves of water in Grafham Water fell to critical levels - drainage of the ElyOuse was reversed (code name RODEO) to increase levels in Grafham Water. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1975 1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Almost all reservoirs in Wessex were reduced to below 30% of capacity leading to concerns about the treatability of the bottom water due to its poor quality - algal blooms. South West Dorset and Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1/1976 12/1976 8.6 Problems with groundwater quality Gradual increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater - Empool borehole, Dorset. South West Dorset and Somerset Dorset CC The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1/1976 12/1976 8.6 Problems with groundwater quality Gradual increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater - Westford spring, Somerset. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1/1976 12/1976 8.6 Problems with groundwater quality Gradual increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater - Traphole springs. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1/1976 12/1976 8.6 Problems with groundwater quality Gradual increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater - Paytons spring. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1/1976 12/1976 8.6 Problems with groundwater quality Gradual increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater - Lytes Cary borehole and springs, Somerset. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1/1976 12/1976 8.6 Problems with groundwater quality Gradual increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater - Bradley Head borehole. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1/1976 11/1976 8.6 Problems with groundwater quality Gradual increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater - Washford springs Somerset. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1/1976 12/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires There was a six fold increase in the number of fires and a twenty-six fold increase in loss of stock area between the years 1974 and 1976. South West; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1/1976 12/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires Local Authority Fire Brigades reported an increased occurrence of outdoor fires in 1976 (354,119) compared to 1974 (202,186). This can be mostly explained by direct drought effects like the increased flammability of vegetation like crops, woods, forests, plantations and grasslands. Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1/1976 12/1976 8.6 Problems with groundwater quality Gradual increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater - Leckford Bridge borehole, Wiltshire. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Wiltshire CC The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1/1976 12/1976 12.1 Increased burned area There was a six fold increase in the number of fires and a twenty-six fold increase in loss of stock area between the years 1974 and 1976. South West; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1/1976 12/1976 8.6 Problems with groundwater quality Gradual increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater - Bulbridge borehole, Wiltshire. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Wiltshire CC The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 2/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Bayern: 16 hydrographs of springs/wells investigated because of the dry period in 1976. Since February the groundwater level was unusual long under MNW. Bayern; LfW-Bay, Die Trockenperiode 1976. Eine Hydrologische Monographie und eine Niedrigwasseranalyse, Schriftenreihe Bayrisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft Heft 12, Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, München.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) As early as JanuaryApril 1976 considerable algal blooms were being reported from several water storage reservoirs in Anglian region - Covenham Reservoir in February had a bloom of Aphanizomenon. Yorkshire and The Humber East Riding and North Lincolnshire North and North East Lincolnshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) As reservoirs still faced the risk of future depletion in many parts of the country, hose pipe bans were introduced by many Regional Water Authorities. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) As reservoirs still faced the risk of future depletion in many parts of the country, hose pipe bans were introduced by many Regional Water Authorities. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 9/1976 Bacterial contamination and deleterious chemical inputs caused a change in the stream biota from broadbased low pollution fauna in the headwaters to a polluted, single species distribution in the lower reaches of the Silk Stream, London, February to September 1976 - the low flows of the headwaters encouraged natural bank shelter and stimulated large numbers of Gammarus pulex but it dies off as toxic and bacterial levels increase below the Edgeware Brook confluence. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) As reservoirs still faced the risk of future depletion in many parts of the country, hose pipe bans were introduced by many Regional Water Authorities. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom As early as JanuaryApril 1976 considerable algal blooms were being reported from several water storage reservoirs in Anglian region - Covenham Reservoir in February had a bloom of Aphanizomenon. Yorkshire and The Humber East Riding and North Lincolnshire North and North East Lincolnshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Dry summer and autumn in 1975 lead to local restrictions - hosepipe ban in Wessex affecting all consumers. South West Dorset and Somerset;Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Dry summer and autumn in 1975 lead to local restrictions - hosepipe ban in Wessex affecting all consumers. South West Dorset and Somerset;Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 9/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Bacterial contamination and deleterious chemical inputs caused a change in the stream biota from broadbased low pollution fauna in the headwaters to a polluted, single species distribution in the lower reaches of the Silk Stream, London, February to September 1976 - high numbers of Limnea perger in the lower reaches correlate with the prolific growth of Cladophora algae as this snail is an algae grazer which migrated upstream from Welsh Harp. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 9/1976 9.14 other Bacterial contamination and deleterious chemical inputs caused a change in the stream biota from broadbased low pollution fauna in the headwaters to a polluted, single species distribution in the lower reaches of the Silk Stream, London, February to September 1976 - high numbers of Limnea perger in the lower reaches correlate with the prolific growth of Cladophora algae as this snail is an algae grazer which migrated upstream from Welsh Harp. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom As early as JanuaryApril 1976 considerable algal blooms were being reported from several water storage reservoirs in Anglian region - Ardleigh Reservoir in February had a bloom of Aphanizomenon. East Of England Essex Essex CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 3/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) During February and March, the small amounts in storage caused emergency measures to be continued in parts of south west England. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 3/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) During February and March, the small amounts in storage caused emergency measures to be continued in parts of south west England. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) As early as JanuaryApril 1976 considerable algal blooms were being reported from several water storage reservoirs in Anglian region - Ardleigh Reservoir in February had a bloom of Aphanizomenon. East Of England Essex Essex CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 9/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Bacterial contamination and deleterious chemical inputs caused a change in the stream biota from broadbased low pollution fauna in the headwaters to a polluted, single species distribution in the lower reaches of the Silk Stream, London, February to September 1976 - high numbers of Limnea perger in the lower reaches correlate with the prolific growth of Cladophora algae as this snail is an algae grazer which migrated upstream from Welsh Harp. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 2/1976 9/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Bacterial contamination and deleterious chemical inputs caused a change in the stream biota from broadbased low pollution fauna in the headwaters to a polluted, single species distribution in the lower reaches of the Silk Stream, London, February to September 1976 - the low flows of the headwaters encouraged natural bank shelter and stimulated large numbers of Gammarus pulex but it dies off as toxic and bacterial levels increase below the Edgeware Brook confluence. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Norge 3/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires Drought and wildfire in march. Norge; Agder og Rogaland; Rogaland; Aftenposten 1976-03-23, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom As early as JanuaryApril 1976 considerable algal blooms were being reported from several water storage reservoirs in Anglian region - Grafham Reservoir at the end of March had a bloom of Stephanodiscus. This organism was considered responsible for an increase in turbidity of the final water after treatment which was also accompanied by a marginal increase in the residual iron concentration. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 2/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Abstract 0.75mgd from the River Wye at Walford, Hereford. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 2/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Feb 1977 reduce compensation from Taf Fechan Reservoir, Glamorgan, from 4.2mgd to 0.5mgd. Wales East Wales Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 2/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Abstract 0.75mgd from the River Wye at Walford, Hereford. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 9/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) The demand for wet sludges substantially increased - 01/03/1976 - 30/09/1976 66% of all sludges in Anglian region were disposed to agricultural land (75% of which was as wet sludge). East Of England Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 2/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Abstract 0.75mgd from the River Wye at Walford, Hereford. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 2/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Feb 1977 reduce compensation from Taf Fechan Reservoir, Glamorgan, from 4.2mgd to 0.5mgd. Wales East Wales Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 2/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Feb 1977 reduce compensation from Taf Fechan Reservoir, Glamorgan, from 4.2mgd to 0.5mgd. Wales East Wales Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) As early as JanuaryApril 1976 considerable algal blooms were being reported from several water storage reservoirs in Anglian region - Grafham Reservoir at the end of March had a bloom of Stephanodiscus. This organism was considered responsible for an increase in turbidity of the final water after treatment which was also accompanied by a marginal increase in the residual iron concentration. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) As reservoirs still faced the risk of future depletion in many parts of the country, hose pipe bans were introduced by many Regional Water Authorities. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 9/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) The demand for wet sludges substantially increased - 01/03/1976 - 30/09/1976 66% of all sludges in Anglian region were disposed to agricultural land (75% of which was as wet sludge). East Of England Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Anglian Water Authority hosepipe ban and publicity campaign to reduce water use. East Midlands National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) In March, hosepipe bans were extended and economy campaigns commenced in several areas, e.g. the Isle of Wight and the Bristol Waterworks Company's area. In addition, various conservation measures were commenced such as reductions in pressure. South West; South East; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset; Dorset and Somerset; Isle of Wight; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In March, hosepipe bans were extended and economy campaigns commenced in several areas, e.g. the Isle of Wight and the Bristol Waterworks Company's area. In addition, various conservation measures were commenced such as reductions in pressure. South West; South East; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset; Dorset and Somerset; Isle of Wight; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) As temperatures increased ammonia levels decreased but algal blooms began to develop at the start of March 1976 - two months earlier than would be expected in normal conditions. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In March, hosepipe bans were extended and economy campaigns commenced in several areas, e.g. the Isle of Wight and the Bristol Waterworks Company's area. In addition, various conservation measures were commenced such as reductions in pressure. South West; South East; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset; Dorset and Somerset; Isle of Wight; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) As reservoirs still faced the risk of future depletion in many parts of the country, hose pipe bans were introduced by many Regional Water Authorities. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) As reservoirs still faced the risk of future depletion in many parts of the country, hose pipe bans were introduced by many Regional Water Authorities. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) A hosepipe ban was implemented on the Isle of Wight in March 1976. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Isle of Wight Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 3/1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) In March, hosepipe bans were extended and economy campaigns commenced in several areas, e.g. the Isle of Wight and the Bristol Waterworks Company's area. In addition, various conservation measures were commenced such as reductions in pressure. South East; South West; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset; Dorset and Somerset; Isle of Wight; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 3/1976 1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom As temperatures increased ammonia levels decreased but algal blooms began to develop at the start of March 1976 - two months earlier than would be expected in normal conditions. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 5/1976 1.4 Reduction of cultivated areas due to a lack of irrigation water Voluntary abstraction restrictions by farmers in April and May in the Welland catchment. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire;Lincolnshire Leicestershire CC and Rutland;West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire):North Northamptonshire (East Northamptonshire, Corby, Wellingborough and Kettering, NULL, NULL);Northamptonshire National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of £9,583,000 to the water industry. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Total cost of the drought to the water industry was £34.4 million (including additional capital expenditure, additional revenue expenditure, loss of income and total additional revenue requirement). The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality From April 1976 onwards river temperatures increased and a temperature of 30oC was not an infrequent occurrence. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) From April 1976 onwards river temperatures increased and a temperature of 30oC was not an infrequent occurrence. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe France 4/1976 10/1976 4.1 Reduced hydropower production reduced hydropower production Méditerranée Languedoc-Roussillion F. Gazelle, Les répercussions des étiages de 1976 sur l´ hydroélectricité languedocienne; La Houille Blanche n.1 / 1980
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 8.8 Problems with drinking water quality (e.g., increased treatment, violation of standards) An algal bloom in Foxcote Reservoir, Anglian region, had to be closed at the end of April 1976 as considerable blockage of the filter system and unacceptably large iron and turbidity residuals were entering the final treated water. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Buckinghamshire CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) An algal bloom in Foxcote Reservoir, Anglian region, had to be closed at the end of April 1976 as considerable blockage of the filter system and unacceptably large iron and turbidity residuals were entering the final treated water. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Buckinghamshire CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 3/1977 12.1 Increased burned area The Forestry Commission recorded a loss of 2,140.4 ha of stocked land in Great Britain from April 1976 to March 1977, which was a tenfold increase on the previous year. There were 1,627 individual fires. Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 1976 Drought Orders issued on the Isle of Wight in April 1976. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Isle of Wight Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency schemes and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - South West Water: £1,674,000 in 1976/77 to £1,783,000 in 1977/1978. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 5/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) The amount of water supplied was very little. Therefore hosepipe bans were still in operation, or came into operation during these months which affected parts of the areas. Wales; East Midlands; East Of England; South East; South West; West Midlands; Yorkshire and The Humber; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 5/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) The amount of water supplied was very little. Therefore hosepipe bans were still in operation, or came into operation during these months which affected parts of the areas. Wales; East Midlands; East Of England; South East; South West; West Midlands; Yorkshire and The Humber; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 5/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) The amount of water supplied was very little. Therefore hosepipe bans were still in operation, or came into operation during these months which affected parts of the areas. Wales; East Midlands; East Of England; South East; South West; West Midlands; Yorkshire and The Humber; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.6 other Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency schemes and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - South West Water: £1,674,000 in 1976/77 to £1,783,000 in 1977/1978. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency schemes and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - Yorkshire Water: £2,343,000 in 1976/77 to £10,200,000 in 1977/1978. Yorkshire and The Humber The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.6 other Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency schemes and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - Yorkshire Water: £2,343,000 in 1976/77 to £10,200,000 in 1977/1978. Yorkshire and The Humber The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency schemes and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - Severn Trent Water: £2,300,000 in 1976/77 to £2,275,000 in 1977/1978. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.6 other Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency schemes and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - Severn Trent Water: £2,300,000 in 1976/77 to £2,275,000 in 1977/1978. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency schemes and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - Severn Trent Water: £2,300,000 in 1976/77 to £2,275,000 in 1977/1978. Yorkshire and The Humber The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.6 other Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency schemes and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - Severn Trent Water: £2,300,000 in 1976/77 to £2,275,000 in 1977/1978. Yorkshire and The Humber The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency schemes and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - Severn Trent Water: £2,300,000 in 1976/77 to £2,275,000 in 1977/1978. East Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.6 other Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency schemes and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - Severn Trent Water: £2,300,000 in 1976/77 to £2,275,000 in 1977/1978. East Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency schemes and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - Severn Trent Water: £2,300,000 in 1976/77 to £2,275,000 in 1977/1978. West Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.6 other Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency schemes and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - Severn Trent Water: £2,300,000 in 1976/77 to £2,275,000 in 1977/1978. West Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency shams and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - Severn Trent Water: £2,300,000 in 1976/77 to £2,275,000 in 1977/1978. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 4/1978 7.6 other Increase in capital schemes by Water Authorities including emergency shams and longer term projects which could be brought forwards - Severn Trent Water: £2,300,000 in 1976/77 to £2,275,000 in 1977/1978. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 2/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - until Nov 1977 reduce compensation from Llwynon Reservoir from 4mgd to 0.5mgd at the dam and from 5.75mgd to 2.0mgd at Talybont Reservoir, both Gwent. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Central Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 2/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - until Nov 1977 reduce compensation from Llwynon Reservoir from 4mgd to 0.5mgd at the dam and from 5.75mgd to 2.0mgd at Talybont Reservoir, both Gwent. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Central Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 3/1977 12.1 Increased burned area The Forestry Commission recorded a loss of 2,140.4 ha of stocked land in Great Britain from April 1976 and March 1977, almost a tenfold increase on 1975. There were 1,627 individual fires. Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 8/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom In the Silk Stream the availability of heterotrophic nutrients in the form of assimilable organic compounds supported the growth of bacteria and fungi. There was prolific production of plantonic algae which spread upstream from the Welsh Harp to cover the water surface 3km upstream London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom An algal bloom in Foxcote Reservoir, Anglian region, had to be closed at the end of April 1976 as considerable blockage of the filter system and unacceptably large iron and turbidity residuals were entering the final treated water. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Buckinghamshire CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 2/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - until Nov 1977 reduce compensation from Llwynon Reservoir from 4mgd to 0.5mgd at the dam and from 5.75mgd to 2.0mgd at Talybont Reservoir, both Gwent. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Central Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 5/1976 1.4 Reduction of cultivated areas due to a lack of irrigation water Voluntary abstraction restrictions by farmers in April and May in the Nene catchment. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 5/1976 1.4 Reduction of cultivated areas due to a lack of irrigation water Voluntary abstraction restrictions by farmers in April and May in the Nene catchment. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC;Norfolk National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 5/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Voluntary abstraction restrictions by farmers in April and May in the Welland catchment. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire;Lincolnshire Leicestershire CC and Rutland;West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire):North Northamptonshire (East Northamptonshire, Corby, Wellingborough and Kettering, NULL, NULL);Northamptonshire National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 5/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Voluntary abstraction restrictions by farmers in April and May in the Nene catchment. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 5/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Voluntary abstraction restrictions by farmers in April and May in the Nene catchment. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC;Norfolk National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 8/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) In the Silk Stream the availability of heterotrophic nutrients in the form of assimilable organic compounds supported the growth of bacteria and fungi. There was prolific production of plantonic algae which spread upstream from the Welsh Harp to cover the water surface 3km upstream London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 4/1976 8/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Dissolved oxygen decreased April to August 1976 to below the saturation point on the Silk Stream, London, and reduced the selfpurification ability of the river. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire;Lincolnshire Leicestershire CC and Rutland;West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire):North Northamptonshire (East Northamptonshire, Corby, Wellingborough and Kettering, NULL, NULL);Northamptonshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 8/1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) Water temperature records for the River Exe at Thorverton between January 1974 and December 1977 show that MayAugust 1976 and to a lesser extent, JuneAugust 1975, were associated with monthly maximum and minimum temperatures considerably in excess of those recorded in the more 'normal' years of 1974 and 1977. The maximum of 25.5oC recorded in June 1976 may be compared with 20.8 and 18.8oC for the same month in 1974 and 1977. These increased temperatures can be attributed to higher air temperatures, increased solar radiation and the low streamflow volumes reducing both the mass transfer of water through a reach and thermal inertia associated with heat exchange at the surface of the water. South West Devon Torbay Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 8/1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality Water temperature records for the River Exe at Thorverton between January 1974 and December 1977 show that MayAugust 1976 and to a lesser extent, JuneAugust 1975, were associated with monthly maximum and minimum temperatures considerably in excess of those recorded in the more 'normal' years of 1974 and 1977. The maximum of 25.5oC recorded in June 1976 may be compared with 20.8 and 18.8oC for the same month in 1974 and 1977. These increased temperatures can be attributed to higher air temperatures, increased solar radiation and the low streamflow volumes reducing both the mass transfer of water through a reach and thermal inertia associated with heat exchange at the surface of the water. South West Devon Torbay Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC;Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC;Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC;Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC;Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire;Lincolnshire Leicestershire CC and Rutland;West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire):North Northamptonshire (East Northamptonshire, Corby, Wellingborough and Kettering, NULL, NULL);Northamptonshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires Costs of insured fire damage for the first ten months of the year 1977 averaged £ 18.5 million per month, while the figure for the months of May, June and August 1976 (the peak of the drought) was £25 million per month, which can be explained by the severe drought impacts on wildfire occurrence in England. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 8/1976 12.5 Increased costs/economic losses Costs of insured fire damage for the first ten months of the year 1977 averaged £ 18.5 million per month, while the figure for the months of May, June and August 1976 (the peak of the drought) was £25 million per month, which can be explained by the severe drought impacts on wildfire occurrence in England. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 5/1976 10/1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses Estimated is that the agricultural loss in all sectors due to the drought in 1976 was 1500 million euros. The main cause was a lack of soil moisture. This loss is seven times higher than an average year. Arcadis, HKV, Korbee&Hovelinck b.v., "Beoordelingskader, afwegingssystematiek, en effectenbepaling", Droogtestudie Fase 1, March 2003
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC;Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire;Lincolnshire Leicestershire CC and Rutland;West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire):North Northamptonshire (East Northamptonshire, Corby, Wellingborough and Kettering, NULL, NULL);Northamptonshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire;Lincolnshire Leicestershire CC and Rutland;West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire):North Northamptonshire (East Northamptonshire, Corby, Wellingborough and Kettering, NULL, NULL);Northamptonshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 8/1976 12.1 Increased burned area Costs of insured fire damage for the first ten months of the year 1977 averaged £ 18.5 million per month, while the figure for the months of May, June and August 1976 (the peak of the drought) was £25 million per month, which can be explained by the severe drought impacts on wildfire occurrence in England. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe Nederland 5/1976 10/1976 1.3 Reduced productivity of permanent crop cultivation Estimated is a total loss due to the drought in the agricultural sector of around 1780 million euros. The loss in a drought year is often artificially higher, because drought often is combined with more sunshine hours, which theoretically would give a higher potential yield for the agricultural sector, and thus more losses is these potential yields are not met. 1976 had 35% losses. Total water shortage was 89 million cubic meter water. D. Klopstra, R. Versteeg and T. Kroon, "Aard, ernst en omvang van watertekorten in Nederland", Droogtestudie, September 2005
1975-76 Europe Nederland 5/1976 10/1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses Estimated is a total loss due to the drought in the agricultural sector of around 1780 million euros. The loss in a drought year is often artificially higher, because drought often is combined with more sunshine hours, which theoretically would give a higher potential yield for the agricultural sector, and thus more losses is these potential yields are not met. 1976 had 35% losses. Total water shortage was 89 million cubic meter water. D. Klopstra, R. Versteeg and T. Kroon, "Aard, ernst en omvang van watertekorten in Nederland", Droogtestudie, September 2005
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC;Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 1.4 Reduction of cultivated areas due to a lack of irrigation water Irrigation reduced in Lincolnshire May to midJuly. East Midlands Lincolnshire Northamptonshire National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Southern Water Authority hosepipe ban. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex;Hampshire and Isle of Wight;Kent National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 5/1976 7/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Algal activity was very great in April 1976, leading to day time levels of dissolved oxygen up to 410% saturation accompanied by pH values over 8 both resulting from the intense photosynthetic activity. Numerous fish deaths were associated with these conditions - 20 such events occurred in the catchments of the Welland, Nene and Great Ouse between May and July 1976. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Denbigshire, Flintshire & Wrexham which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Wales East Wales Flintshire and Wrexham Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Shropshire which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. West Midlands Shropshire and Staffordshire Shropshire CC Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of >=1000 fires in Staffordshire which was a 1519.99% increase over the 1974 mean. West Midlands Shropshire and Staffordshire Staffordshire CC Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 800999 fires in Derbyshire which was a 1519.99% increase over the 1974 mean. East Midlands Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of >=1000 fires in Nottinghamshire which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. East Midlands Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire Nottingham;North Nottinghamshire;South Nottinghamshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 600799 fires in Leicestershire which was a 1519.99% increase over the 1974 mean. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire Leicester;Leicestershire CC and Rutland Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 400599 fires in Warwickshire which was a 1519.99% increase over the 1974 mean. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Worcestershire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 6/1976 8/1976 1.2 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation, losses > 30% (EU compensation treshold) Like in previous summer droughts the worst effect was evident in terms of 'Emd' (second hay cut) yields. Most of Switzerland was affected by reduced 'Emd' yields due to the extreme summer drought conditions in the relevant months of June and July. According to the data from the Schweizerische Bauernsekretariat especially in the cantons Bern, Freiburg, Aargau, Basel-landschaft, Graubünden, Schaffhausen, St. Gallen, Thurgau, Vaud, Luzern, Zürich, Solothurn, 'Emd' yields considerably lower than the mean of the period 1971-1980 were observed, deviations ranging from -12% (St. Gallen) to -47% (Vaud). In consequence of the fodder shortage there were increased slaughtering rates in June and July associated with sharp price declines for slaughter stock. But governmental measures (stockpiling of meat financed by the national budget and import protection) proofed being quickly effective. And against all fears the situation improved with the autumn rains and there were no more emergency slaughtering later in the year. In contrast to the drought of 1947, 1976 had no long term impact on the development of live stock herds in Switzerland. Especially in the cantons of Graubünden and Ticino there was a severe lack of fodder for the winter period, that in some cases would have required to reduce livestock herds by up to 2/3, i.e. some farmers were existentially threatened because of the impacts of the summer drought in 1976. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Ticino; Nordwestschweiz; Ostschweiz; Région Lémanique; Zürich; Zentralschweiz; Espace Mittelland; Bern; Freiburg; Aargau; Basel-landschaft; Graubünden; Schaffhausen; St. Gallen; Thurgau; Vaud; Luzern; Zürich; Solothurn; Ticino; Schorer (1992): Heu- und Emderträge in der Schweiz 1976 (source: Schweizerisches Bauernsekretariat 1986) included in : Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. Page 147
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 400599 fires in Birmingham which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. West Midlands West Midlands Birmingham Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 6/1976 1976 15.2 Regional/local user conflicts There are plenty of reports on the implementation of ad hoc emergency irrigation actions in the drought summer of 1976 in Switzerland, for instance from the cantons Basel Landschaft, Thurgau and Graubünden. Already in June the critical drought stress of crops became clearly evident in many regions, while some highland zones or the Valais, where irrigation had been a common traditional practice, had no problems. Mid June the canton authorities felt impelled to allow the abstraction of stream water for temporary agricultural irrigation facilities. There was some confusion because many of the drought affected farmers abstracted water without official permission. Some cantons made announcements in order to remind for legal requirements. Consequently the authorities got overwhelmed by requests from farmers, thus the responsibility for authorisation was transferred to the municipalities. Overall this concept proofed successful, however there are some reports on conflicts between neighbour communities about the appropriate limit of abstractable water. Furthermore an agreement on priorities was needed. Reports about the irrigation efforts (and the official Aktion ACQUA coordinated federal level from July onwards) all deal in detail with the unclearness of authoritative responsibility as well as the corresponding complicated and sometimes incomplete legislative basis mostly differing between cantons. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 6/1976 1976 15.3 other There are plenty of reports on the implementation of ad hoc emergency irrigation actions in the drought summer of 1976 in Switzerland, for instance from the cantons Basel Landschaft, Thurgau and Graubünden. Already in June the critical drought stress of crops became clearly evident in many regions, while some highland zones or the Valais, where irrigation had been a common traditional practice, had no problems. Mid June the canton authorities felt impelled to allow the abstraction of stream water for temporary agricultural irrigation facilities. There was some confusion because many of the drought affected farmers abstracted water without official permission. Some cantons made announcements in order to remind for legal requirements. Consequently the authorities got overwhelmed by requests from farmers, thus the responsibility for authorisation was transferred to the municipalities. Overall this concept proofed successful, however there are some reports on conflicts between neighbour communities about the appropriate limit of abstractable water. Furthermore an agreement on priorities was needed. Reports about the irrigation efforts (and the official Aktion ACQUA coordinated federal level from July onwards) all deal in detail with the unclearness of authoritative responsibility as well as the corresponding complicated and sometimes incomplete legislative basis mostly differing between cantons. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 6/1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Massive provisional (authorised and unauthorised) abstractions of stream water for irrigation purposes were very widespread in Switzerland during the summer of 1976. In case of large and mid-sized rivers no negative ecological consequences have been documented in spite of extremely low flows. In contrast abstractions led to some smaller streams felling completely dry with resulting impacts for the streams' flora and fauna. In this context the fish departments of the cantons (Fischereifachstellen) criticised that (anthropogenically modified) stream channels often are oversized and Kolk structures are missing, which could have enabled survival of fish in this situation. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 6/1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Massive provisional (authorised and unauthorised) abstractions of stream water for irrigation purposes were very widespread in Switzerland during the summer of 1976. In case of large and mid-sized rivers no negative ecological consequences have been documented in spite of extremely low flows. In contrast abstractions led to some smaller streams felling completely dry with resulting impacts for the streams' flora and fauna. In this context the fish departments of the cantons (Fischereifachstellen) criticised that (anthropogenically modified) stream channels often are oversized and Kolk structures are missing, which could have enabled survival of fish in this situation. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 6/1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Massive provisional (authorised and unauthorised) abstractions of stream water for irrigation purposes were very widespread in Switzerland during the summer of 1976. In case of large and mid-sized rivers no negative ecological consequences have been documented in spite of extremely low flows. In contrast abstractions led to some smaller streams felling completely dry with resulting impacts for the streams' flora and fauna. In this context the fish departments of the cantons (Fischereifachstellen) criticised that (anthropogenically modified) stream channels often are oversized and Kolk structures are missing, which could have enabled survival of fish in this situation. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 6/1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Massive provisional (authorised and unauthorised) abstractions of stream water for irrigation purposes were very widespread in Switzerland during the summer of 1976. In case of large and mid-sized rivers no negative ecological consequences have been documented in spite of extremely low flows. In contrast abstractions led to some smaller streams felling completely dry with resulting impacts for the streams' flora and fauna. In this context the fish departments of the cantons (Fischereifachstellen) criticised that (anthropogenically modified) stream channels often are oversized and Kolk structures are missing, which could have enabled survival of fish in this situation. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 6/1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Massive provisional (authorised and unauthorised) abstractions of stream water for irrigation purposes were very widespread in Switzerland during the summer of 1976. In case of large and mid-sized rivers no negative ecological consequences have been documented in spite of extremely low flows. In contrast abstractions led to some smaller streams felling completely dry with resulting impacts for the streams' flora and fauna. In this context the fish departments of the cantons (Fischereifachstellen) criticised that (anthropogenically modified) stream channels often are oversized and Kolk structures are missing, which could have enabled survival of fish in this situation. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 6/1976 8/1976 1.6 Forced reduction of stock(early selling/slaughtering) Like in previous summer droughts the worst effect was evident in terms of 'Emd' (second hay cut) yields. Most of Switzerland was affected by reduced 'Emd' yields due to the extreme summer drought conditions in the relevant months of June and July. According to the data from the Schweizerische Bauernsekretariat especially in the cantons Bern, Freiburg, Aargau, Basel-landschaft, Graubünden, Schaffhausen, St. Gallen, Thurgau, Vaud, Luzern, Zürich, Solothurn, 'Emd' yields considerably lower than the mean of the period 1971-1980 were observed, deviations ranging from -12% (St. Gallen) to -47% (Vaud). In consequence of the fodder shortage there were increased slaughtering rates in June and July associated with sharp price declines for slaughter stock. But governmental measures (stockpiling of meat financed by the national budget and import protection) proofed being quickly effective. And against all fears the situation improved with the autumn rains and there were no more emergency slaughtering later in the year. In contrast to the drought of 1947, 1976 had no long term impact on the development of live stock herds in Switzerland. Especially in the cantons of Graubünden and Ticino there was a severe lack of fodder for the winter period, that in some cases would have required to reduce livestock herds by up to 2/3, i.e. some farmers were existentially threatened because of the impacts of the summer drought in 1976. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Ticino; Nordwestschweiz; Ostschweiz; Région Lémanique; Zürich; Zentralschweiz; Espace Mittelland; Bern; Freiburg; Aargau; Basel-landschaft; Graubünden; Schaffhausen; St. Gallen; Thurgau; Vaud; Luzern; Zürich; Solothurn; Ticino; Schorer (1992): Heu- und Emderträge in der Schweiz 1976 (source: Schweizerisches Bauernsekretariat 1986) included in : Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. Page 147
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 6/1976 8/1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock Like in previous summer droughts the worst effect was evident in terms of 'Emd' (second hay cut) yields. Most of Switzerland was affected by reduced 'Emd' yields due to the extreme summer drought conditions in the relevant months of June and July. According to the data from the Schweizerische Bauernsekretariat especially in the cantons Bern, Freiburg, Aargau, Basel-landschaft, Graubünden, Schaffhausen, St. Gallen, Thurgau, Vaud, Luzern, Zürich, Solothurn, 'Emd' yields considerably lower than the mean of the period 1971-1980 were observed, deviations ranging from -12% (St. Gallen) to -47% (Vaud). In consequence of the fodder shortage there were increased slaughtering rates in June and July associated with sharp price declines for slaughter stock. But governmental measures (stockpiling of meat financed by the national budget and import protection) proofed being quickly effective. And against all fears the situation improved with the autumn rains and there were no more emergency slaughtering later in the year. In contrast to the drought of 1947, 1976 had no long term impact on the development of live stock herds in Switzerland. Especially in the cantons of Graubünden and Ticino there was a severe lack of fodder for the winter period, that in some cases would have required to reduce livestock herds by up to 2/3, i.e. some farmers were existentially threatened because of the impacts of the summer drought in 1976. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Ticino; Nordwestschweiz; Ostschweiz; Région Lémanique; Zürich; Zentralschweiz; Espace Mittelland; Bern; Freiburg; Aargau; Basel-landschaft; Graubünden; Schaffhausen; St. Gallen; Thurgau; Vaud; Luzern; Zürich; Solothurn; Ticino; Schorer (1992): Heu- und Emderträge in der Schweiz 1976 (source: Schweizerisches Bauernsekretariat 1986) included in : Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. Page 147
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Lincolnshire which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Yorkshire and The Humber East Riding and North Lincolnshire North and North East Lincolnshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Lincolnshire which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. East Midlands Lincolnshire Northamptonshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Cambridgeshire which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Northamptonshire which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire, NULL, NULL);North Northamptonshire (East Northamptonshire, Corby, Wellingborough and Kettering) Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Hertfordshire & Bedfordshire which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Central Bedfordshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 400599 fires in Norfolk which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. East Of England East Anglia Norfolk Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of >=1000 fires in South Yorkshire which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Yorkshire and The Humber South Yorkshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of >=1000 fires in West Yorkshire which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Yorkshire and The Humber West Yorkshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in North Yorkshire which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of >=1000 fires in Greater Manchester which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. North West Greater Manchester Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of >=1000 fires in Merseyside which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. North West Merseyside Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 800999 fires in Lancashire which was a 1519.99% increase over the 1974 mean. North West Lancashire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Cumbria which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. North West Cumbria Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in County Durham which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. North East Tees Valley and Durham Durham CC Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in the Boarders which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. West Midlands Shropshire and Staffordshire Shropshire CC Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Crops in drier areas were suffering severely from drought at the start of June and by the end of June the effects of hot weather began to spread across the whole country with a serious deterioration in crop prospects. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 0199 fires in Dumfries & Galloway which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Scotland South Western Scotland Dumfries and Galloway Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 800999 fires in Strathclyde (Argyll & Bute, Ayrshire, East Dumbartonshire, West Dumbartonshire, Helensburgh, Lomand, Glasgow, Inverclyde. East Renfrewshire, Renfrewshire & Lanarkshire) which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Scotland South Western Scotland East and West Dunbartonshire, Helensburgh and Lomond;Glasgow City;Inverclyde, East Renfrewshire and Renfrewshire;North Lanarkshire;South Lanarkshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 0199 fires in the Central region of Scotland (Clackmannanshire, Falkirk & Stirling) which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Scotland Eastern Scotland Clackmannanshire and Fife;Falkirk;Perth and Kinross and Stirling Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Irrigated potato crops were affected by the heat in June. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 0199 fires in Fife which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Scotland Eastern Scotland Clackmannanshire and Fife Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 0199 fires in Tayside which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Scotland Eastern Scotland Angus and Dundee City;Perth and Kinross and Stirling Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 0199 fires in Aberdeenshire which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Scotland North Eastern Scotland Aberdeen and Aberdeenshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 400599 fires in Northern Ireland which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Northern Ireland Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Nederland 6/1976 9/1976 5.3 other The sluices in the channel will open less the coming time, to overcome salt intrusion. The normally fresh water already has a too high salt content, and to overcome further increase the sluice will only open once an hour. Ships will have to wait longer before they can enter the channel. West-Nederland; Noord-Holland; Kop van Noord-Holland; Noordhollands Dagblad, "Sluis minder vaak open om droogte", Noorhollands Dagblad Helderse Courant Editie, 1 June 2011
1975-76 Europe Nederland 6/1976 9/1976 8.12 other Extra pumping had to happen to overcome salt intrusion and damage in the Amsterdam Rijn kanaal and the Noordzeekanaal. The costs for this extra pumping are estimated between 45.000 and 68.000 euros West-Nederland; Noord-Holland; Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, Rijkswaterstaat direktie Noord-Holland, "Rapportage droogte 1976", Rapport SDIJ 77.05, 1977
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) The river Exe at Thorveton was 6°C warmer in June 1976, as compared to the same time in 1977. South West; Devon; Devon CC; Christierson, B. v., J. Hannaford, et al. (2009). Impacts of long droughts on water resources – draft final. Bristol, Environment Agency: 143.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality The river Exe at Thorveton was 6°C warmer in June 1976, as compared to the same time in 1977. South West; Devon; Devon CC; Christierson, B. v., J. Hannaford, et al. (2009). Impacts of long droughts on water resources – draft final. Bristol, Environment Agency: 143.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in East Sussex which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex East Sussex CC Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Wiltshire which was a 1519.99% increase over the 1974 mean. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Wiltshire CC Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 400599 fires in Avon (between Gloucestershire & Somerset) which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset;Dorset and Somerset North and North East Somerset, South Gloucestershire;Somerset Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 600799 fires in Berkshire which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Berkshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of >=10,000 fires in Surrey which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex Surrey Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of >=10,000 fires in Greater London which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. London Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of >=10,000 fires in Kent which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. South East Kent Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Belgique-België 6/1976 11/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) River water quality during drought events was investigated at the measurement stations Eijsden, situated along the Meuse at the Belgium– Dutch border and Keizersveer, situated approximately 250 km downstream of Eijsden. Discharge at Eijsden was extremely low during the drought of June–November 1976. Conclusions of the Study by van Vliet & Zwolsman (2008): "The detailed assessment of the impacts of the 1976 and 2003 droughts on the water quality of the Meuse river, shows significant adverse effects with respect to water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, eutrophication, concentrations of major elements, and some heavy metals and metalloids (selenium, nickel and barium). Positive effects on water quality occur for nitrate and some particle reactive heavy metals (lead, chrome, mercury and cadmium). By and large, the negative effects on water quality, especially the increase in eutrophication, outweigh the positive effects. Région Wallonne; van Vliet, M. T. H., and J. J. G. Zwolsman (2008), Impact of summer droughts on the water quality of the Meuse river, Journal of Hydrology, 353(1–2), 1-17.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of >=10,000 fires in Essex which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. East Of England Essex Essex CC Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 600799 fires in Hertfordshire which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Hertfordshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 400599 fires in Buckinghamshire which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Buckinghamshire CC Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Oxfordshire which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Gloucestershire which was a >=20% increase over the 1974 mean. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Gloucestershire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 400599 fires in Worcestershire & Herefordshire which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Worcestershire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 400599 fires in Worcestershire & Herefordshire which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 400599 fires in Monmouthshire which was a 1519.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Wales East Wales Monmouthshire and Newport Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Ceredigon, Pembrokeshire & Carmarthenshire which was a 1519.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 0199 fires in Powys which was a 1519.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Wales East Wales Powys Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 400599 fires in Swansea, Neath Port Talbot & Bridgend which was a >=20% increase over the 1974 mean. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Bridgend and Neath Port Talbot;Swansea Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 6/1976 7/1976 5.1 Impaired navigability of streams (reduction of load, increased need of interim storage of goods at ports) Absent precipitation over five weeks and remarkably high temperatures led to low streamflow levels of the Rhine River. Waterborne transportation and shipping faced several restrictions. Nordrhein-Westfalen; Baden-Württemberg; Münchener Rückversicherungsgesellschaft (1999). Naturkatastrophen in Deutschland - Schadenerfahrungen und Schadenpotentiale. München.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 6/1976 7/1976 4.4 other Absent precipitation over five weeks and remarkably high temperatures led to limitations of electricity supply. Nordrhein-Westfalen; Baden-Württemberg; Münchener Rückversicherungsgesellschaft (1999). Naturkatastrophen in Deutschland - Schadenerfahrungen und Schadenpotentiale. München.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 6/1976 7/1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Absent precipitation over five weeks and remarkably high temperatures led to agricultural damages. There was a multitude of reports about perished seedlings. Nordrhein-Westfalen; Baden-Württemberg; Münchener Rückversicherungsgesellschaft (1999). Naturkatastrophen in Deutschland - Schadenerfahrungen und Schadenpotentiale. München.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in the Vale of Glamorgan & Cardiff which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Wales East Wales Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 600799 fires in Rhondda Cynon Taf, Merthyr Tydfil, Caerphilly, Newport, Torfaen & Blawnau Gwent which was a >=20% increase over the 1974 mean. Wales West Wales and The Valleys;East Wales Central Valleys;Gwent Valleys;Monmouthshire and Newport Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires on the Isle of Anglesey which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Isle of Anglesey Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Gwynedd & Conwy which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwynedd;Conwy and Denbighshire Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Nederland 6/1976 10/1976 4.2 Impaired production/shut down of thermal/nuclear powerplants (due to a lack of cooling water and/or environmental legislation for discharges into streams) Local decline in electricity production due to a lack of cooling water. Ir.P.K.M. van der Heije, "De Droogte van 1976 - een samenvatting en overzicht van de over droogte van 1976 verschenen literatuur", TNO, Rep.no.3, August 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 6/1976 10/1976 5.1 Impaired navigability of streams (reduction of load, increased need of interim storage of goods at ports) Impaired navigability for ships because several streams were not deep enough. On several trajects, these problems were still there in 1977. The international route between Spijk and Ruhr also had troubles. Ir.P.K.M. van der Heije, "De Droogte van 1976 - een samenvatting en overzicht van de over droogte van 1976 verschenen literatuur", TNO, Rep.no.3, August 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 6/1976 10/1976 7.6 other During the drought, drinking water demand increased with 7%. 40% of the companies had problems with supplying the water, e.g. due to a lower pressure in the pipe network. Also the quality of the water decreased; an increase in chloride. Ir.P.K.M. van der Heije, "De Droogte van 1976 - een samenvatting en overzicht van de over droogte van 1976 verschenen literatuur", TNO, Rep.no.3, August 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 6/1976 10/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) During the drought, drinking water demand increased with 7%. 40% of the companies had problems with supplying the water, e.g. due to a lower pressure in the pipe network. Also the quality of the water decreased; an increase in chloride. Ir.P.K.M. van der Heije, "De Droogte van 1976 - een samenvatting en overzicht van de over droogte van 1976 verschenen literatuur", TNO, Rep.no.3, August 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 6/1976 10/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) During the drought, drinking water demand increased with 7%. 40% of the companies had problems with supplying the water, e.g. due to a lower pressure in the pipe network. Also the quality of the water decreased; an increase in chloride. Ir.P.K.M. van der Heije, "De Droogte van 1976 - een samenvatting en overzicht van de over droogte van 1976 verschenen literatuur", TNO, Rep.no.3, August 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 6/1976 10/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires Several wild fires were observed, which are not very usual in The Netherlands. Many beech trees died because of the drought. Ir.P.K.M. van der Heije, "De Droogte van 1976 - een samenvatting en overzicht van de over droogte van 1976 verschenen literatuur", TNO, Rep.no.3, August 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 6/1976 10/1976 1.3 Reduced productivity of permanent crop cultivation Noord-Brabant and Noord-Holland were the areas with the highest moist-deficit. 10.7% was irrigated area; 56% surface water was used, 44% groundwater. Crop losses were highest in sandy areas; 40-50%. In polder areas 20-30%. Areas that were not irrigated even had 10 to 20% higher loss. Ir.P.K.M. van der Heije, "De Droogte van 1976 - een samenvatting en overzicht van de over droogte van 1976 verschenen literatuur", TNO, Rep.no.3, August 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 6/1976 10/1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Noord-Brabant and Noord-Holland were the areas with the highest moist-deficit. 10.7% was irrigated area; 56% surface water was used, 44% groundwater. Crop losses were highest in sandy areas; 40-50%. In polder areas 20-30%. Areas that were not irrigated even had 10 to 20% higher loss. Ir.P.K.M. van der Heije, "De Droogte van 1976 - een samenvatting en overzicht van de over droogte van 1976 verschenen literatuur", TNO, Rep.no.3, August 1978
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) As reservoirs were running dry and water supplies were in danger of being insufficient, tankers were being used to fill service reservoirs in the Isle of Wight. South East; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Isle of Wight; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) As in 1975, there were distribution problems in some areas such as the west Midlands and parts of the Thames Valley and Hampshire. West Midlands;South East; London; Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire; Surrey, East and West Sussex; Outer London; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Oxfordshire; Buckinghamshire CC; Berkshire; Surrey; Outer London - West and North West; Hampshire CC; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) As in 1975, there were distribution problems in some areas such as the west Midlands and parts of the Thames Valley and Hampshire. West Midlands;South East; London; Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire; Surrey, East and West Sussex; Outer London; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Oxfordshire; Buckinghamshire CC; Berkshire; Surrey; Outer London - West and North West; Hampshire CC; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) As in 1975, there were distribution problems in some areas such as the west Midlands and parts of the Thames Valley and Hampshire. West Midlands;South East; London; Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire; Surrey, East and West Sussex; Outer London; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Oxfordshire; Buckinghamshire CC; Berkshire; Surrey; Outer London - West and North West; Hampshire CC; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) As in 1975, there were distribution problems in some areas such as the west Midlands and parts of the Thames Valley and Hampshire. West Midlands;South East; London; Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire; Surrey, East and West Sussex; Outer London; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Oxfordshire; Buckinghamshire CC; Berkshire; Surrey; Outer London - West and North West; Hampshire CC; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 4.4 other Intensive economy campaigns were commenced and the effect of these economy campaigns and the other conservation measures was to reduce the June 1976 total water supplies by about 500 Mio. litres per day compared with the 1975 figure for England and Wales. South West; Wales; East Of England; East Midlands; South East; Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset; Dorset and Somerset; East Wales; East Anglia; Lincolnshire; Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire; Surrey, East and West Sussex; Cambridgeshire CC; Peterborough; Northamptonshire; East Sussex CC; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Local sources of water supplies failed. South East; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Isle of Wight; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Local sources of water supplies failed. South East; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Isle of Wight; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Local sources of water supply failed in the Usk and Wye valleys, while flows in the rivers Severn and Wye were being regulated by releases from Clywedog and the Elan Valley. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Local sources of water supply failed in the Usk and Wye valleys, while flows in the rivers Severn and Wye were being regulated by releases from Clywedog and the Elan Valley. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Local sources of water supply failed in the Usk and Wye valleys, while flows in the rivers Severn and Wye were being regulated by releases from Clywedog and the Elan Valley. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Local sources of water supply failed in the Usk and Wye valleys, while flows in the rivers Severn and Wye were being regulated by releases from Clywedog and the Elan Valley. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe France 6/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) The minimum oxygen content in Metz was 1 mg/l in June 1967. Est; Lorraine; Moselle; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Local sources of water supplies failed. South East; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Isle of Wight; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 6/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Local sources of water supplies failed. South East; Hampshire and Isle of Wight; Isle of Wight; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 6/1976 7/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) The oxygen content in the river Main at Kahl was 0 mg/l for weeks and at Wipfeld was the daily average about 1 mg/l. At some barrages, a special programme was used for extra ventilation. Bayern; Unterfranken; Aschaffenburg, Landkreis; Schweinfurt, Landkreis; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe France 6/1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires Increased number of wildfires. Increased severity of wildfires. Summer holidays interrupted because of the Wildfires. Ecoomic loss of the drought of 1976 was estimated at about 100 billion French Francs. Reference Link (accessed: Sep 2014)
1975-76 Europe France 6/1976 1976 12.3 Increased severity of wildfires Increased number of wildfires. Increased severity of wildfires. Summer holidays interrupted because of the Wildfires. Ecoomic loss of the drought of 1976 was estimated at about 100 billion French Francs. Reference Link (accessed: Sep 2014)
1975-76 Europe France 6/1976 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) Reduced productivity of livestock farming. Ecoomic loss of the drought of 1976 was estimated at about 100 billion French Francs (including also sectors other than farming). Reference Link (accessed: Sep 2014)
1975-76 Europe France 6/1976 1976 12.5 Increased costs/economic losses Increased number of wildfires. Increased severity of wildfires. Summer holidays interrupted because of the Wildfires. Ecoomic loss of the drought of 1976 was estimated at about 100 billion French Francs. Reference Link (accessed: Sep 2014)
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 6/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) At the end of June it occurred that the water supply reservoir (total volume 10 000 m³) was empty, thus bans on car washing, garden sprinkling and filling of swimming pools were imposed. Rheinland-Pfalz; Rheinhessen-Pfalz; Mainz, Kreisfreie Stadt; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 6/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) At the end of June it occurred that the water supply reservoir (total volume 10 000 m³) was empty, thus bans on car washing, garden sprinkling and filling of swimming pools were imposed. Rheinland-Pfalz; Rheinhessen-Pfalz; Mainz, Kreisfreie Stadt; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 400599 fires in Cornwall which was a 1519.9% increase over the 1974 mean. South West Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 600799 fires in Devon which was a 1014.9% increase over the 1974 mean. South West Devon Torbay Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in Somerset which was >=20% increase over the 1974 mean. South West Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Somerset Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 400599 fires in Dorset which was a 59.9% increase over the 1974 mean. South West Dorset and Somerset Dorset CC Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of >=10,000 fires in Hampshire which was a 1014.99% increase over the 1974 mean. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Hampshire CC Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 6/1976 5.1 Impaired navigability of streams (reduction of load, increased need of interim storage of goods at ports) Extreme low water levels of the Danube at Regensburg, navigation is locally heavily impaired and sometimes close to complete cessation Bayern; Niederbayern; Oberbayern; Oberpfalz; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in the Isle of Wight which was a 1519.99% increase over the 1974 mean. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Isle of Wight Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 6/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires JuneAugust 1976 there was an average of 200399 fires in West Sussex which was a 59.99% increase over the 1974 mean. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex Kent CC Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7/1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) Rotacuts in SW Wales meant there was severe limitations on all industrial users in Blanau Gwent for four weeks. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Belgique-België 7/1976 7/1976 12.1 Increased burned area Hundred of fire fighters from Belgium and Luxembourg Duchy fought fires in the Ardennes around Bastogne (newspaper article on July-7 1976) Région Wallonne; Prov. Luxembourg (B, NULL, NULL); Arr. Bastogne; Beaver County Times - Jul 7, 1976, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Luxembourg (Grand-Duché) 7/1976 7/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires Hundred of fire fighters from Belgium and Luxembourg Duchy fought fires in the Ardennes around Bastogne (newspaper article on July-7 1976) Luxembourg (Grand-Duché, NULL, NULL); Luxembourg (Grand-Duché, NULL, NULL); Luxembourg (Grand-Duché, NULL, NULL); Beaver County Times - Jul 7, 1976, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom By July Grafham reservoir was affected by a severe bloom of Microcystis. The normal treatment was found to be incompatible with removing the offending bloom and the breakdown products that ensued. Alum treatment was introduced without soda softening and this gave substantial improvement in the final water but turbidity residuals were still above average. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom By July Ardleigh reservoir was affected by a severe bloom of Microcystis. The normal treatment was found to be incompatible with removing the offending bloom and the breakdown products that ensued. The normal treatment was found to be incompatible with removing the offending bloom and the breakdown products that ensued. East Of England Essex Essex CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Microcystis blooms occurred in Thames Water Authority reservoirs in July. London Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) By July Grafham reservoir was affected by a severe bloom of Microcystis. The normal treatment was found to be incompatible with removing the offending bloom and the breakdown products that ensued. Alum treatment was introduced without soda softening and this gave substantial improvement in the final water but turbidity residuals were still above average. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 8/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Denitrification occurred on the Silk Stream in response to the low flow conditions. NO3 levels were nearly always at or below 1mg/l, occasionally falling below detection limits as the percentage of algae cover increased during July and August. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe France 7/1976 8.4 (Temporary) impairment of chemical status of surface waters (according to EU Water Framework Directive) The Chloride content in the river Moselle increased to 500 mg/l due to salt discharge in the upper catchment area. Est; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Microcystis blooms occurred in Thames Water Authority reservoirs in July. South East Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) In South West Wales rotacuts were first introduced in midJuly and continued in some districts for 10 weeks Wales West Wales and The Valleys Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) In South West Wales rotacuts were first introduced in midJuly and continued in some districts for 10 weeks Wales West Wales and The Valleys Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7.6 other Drought Act 1976 brought in to safeguard domestic supplies and ensure that supplies to industry would be sufficient to maintain production and employment if the dry weather continued. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 7/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) The oxygen content in the river Rhine at Rheinfelden (Germany) was only measured with 8.1 mg/l in July the 5th 1976. Baden-Württemberg; Rheinland-Pfalz; Freiburg;Rheinhessen-Pfalz; Lörrach; Alzey-Worms; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 8/1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Denitrification occurred on the Silk Stream in response to the low flow conditions. NO3 levels were nearly always at or below 1mg/l, occasionally falling below detection limits as the percentage of algae cover increased during July and August. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Nederland 7/1976 9/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) The minimum oxygen content in Lobith was 4.2 mg/l in July and 3 mg/l in September 1967. Oost-Nederland; Gelderland; Arnhem/Nijmegen; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 7/1976 8.4 (Temporary) impairment of chemical status of surface waters (according to EU Water Framework Directive) The maximum chloride content in the river Rhine was 334 mg/l at July the 13th 1976. Oost-Nederland; Gelderland; Arnhem/Nijmegen; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires In the UK, there was a rapid increase in the monthly average of vegetation fires between the summer periods of 1974 (4,847) and 1976 (48,674). Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires There was a rapid increase of wildfire occurrences between 1974 and 1976 in the number of wildfires during the months July and August. Whereas the number of fires in July and August 1974 were around 20 in England, 70 and 110 wildfires were reported in July and August 1976. Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) With the alga Microcystis, acidification of the final water produces a cottonwool type floc caused by mucopolysaccharides causing problems for the producers of soft drinks. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) By July Ardleigh reservoir was affected by a severe bloom of Microcystis. The normal treatment was found to be incompatible with removing the offending bloom and the breakdown products that ensued. The normal treatment was found to be incompatible with removing the offending bloom and the breakdown products that ensued. East Of England Essex Essex CC Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Microcystis blooms occurred in Thames Water Authority reservoirs in July. London Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Microcystis blooms occurred in Thames Water Authority reservoirs in July. South East Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 8.11 Problems with water quality for use in industrial production processes With the alga Microcystis, acidification of the final water produces a cottonwool type floc caused by mucopolysaccharides causing problems for the producers of soft drinks. Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 1/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - reduce prescribed flow in River Usk at Rhadyr, Gwent. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 8/1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) There were severe limitations for industrial water users lasting 4 weeks from mid-July. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Gwent Valleys; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9/1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) Shortages in water supplies led to reduced industrial productions in some districts, from mid-July, lasting 10 weeks. Wales; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 7/1976 1976 8.6 Problems with groundwater quality In terms of quantitative water availability public water supply was only moderately affected by the drought in 1976. Much mire threatening were the observed water quality issues because of frequently significantly high contaminant loads observed in stream under extreme low flow conditions. Particularly in July 1976, when the purification capacity of the dry and cracked soil surfaces were reduced intense precipitation events can lead to the pollution of springs from shallow aquifers that are used for drinking water supply. Hence water quality problems were reported from many areas. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 7/1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) In terms of quantitative water availability public water supply was only moderately affected by the drought in 1976. Much mire threatening were the observed water quality issues because of frequently significantly high contaminant loads observed in stream under extreme low flow conditions. Particularly in July 1976, when the purification capacity of the dry and cracked soil surfaces were reduced intense precipitation events can lead to the pollution of springs from shallow aquifers that are used for drinking water supply. Hence water quality problems were reported from many areas. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 1/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - reduce prescribed flow in River Usk at Rhadyr, Gwent. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe France 7/1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) The lack of feedstuffs has caused the slaughter of livestock at unprecedented rates. The result has been a plummeting of meat Prices over the last few weeks. In France poultry and rabbit meat prices fell nearly 50 per cent in one week. The danger of the herd slaughter is obvious. Beef and dairy herds which are being destroyed virtually overnight cannot be rebuilt in a short period of time. Due to stepped-up rates of butchery, France is already reporting shortages of milk. According to the Paris daily Le Monde of July 6. French dairy production is dropping at the rate of 4-5 per cent per week. (It should be noted that the EEC has been attempting to reduce dairy production for years to clear away massive stockpiles of butter and powdered milk. French cows eat more butter and milk than most Frenchmen.) The London Financial Times estimated the drought damage for France alone at $5 to $6 billion in foreign trade balance-of-payments aid to farmers and lost hydro-electric power. EIR – Executive Intelligence Review (1976): “European Livestock Herds Slaughtered As Continent-Wide Drought Continues” (International Market Newsletter Section). EIR 3(29), July-20-1976. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe France 7/1976 1.6 Forced reduction of stock(early selling/slaughtering) The lack of feedstuffs has caused the slaughter of livestock at unprecedented rates. The result has been a plummeting of meat Prices over the last few weeks. In France poultry and rabbit meat prices fell nearly 50 per cent in one week. The danger of the herd slaughter is obvious. Beef and dairy herds which are being destroyed virtually overnight cannot be rebuilt in a short period of time. Due to stepped-up rates of butchery, France is already reporting shortages of milk. According to the Paris daily Le Monde of July 6. French dairy production is dropping at the rate of 4-5 per cent per week. (It should be noted that the EEC has been attempting to reduce dairy production for years to clear away massive stockpiles of butter and powdered milk. French cows eat more butter and milk than most Frenchmen.) The London Financial Times estimated the drought damage for France alone at $5 to $6 billion in foreign trade balance-of-payments aid to farmers and lost hydro-electric power. EIR – Executive Intelligence Review (1976): “European Livestock Herds Slaughtered As Continent-Wide Drought Continues” (International Market Newsletter Section). EIR 3(29), July-20-1976. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe France 7/1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock The lack of feedstuffs has caused the slaughter of livestock at unprecedented rates. The result has been a plummeting of meat Prices over the last few weeks. In France poultry and rabbit meat prices fell nearly 50 per cent in one week. The danger of the herd slaughter is obvious. Beef and dairy herds which are being destroyed virtually overnight cannot be rebuilt in a short period of time. Due to stepped-up rates of butchery, France is already reporting shortages of milk. According to the Paris daily Le Monde of July 6. French dairy production is dropping at the rate of 4-5 per cent per week. (It should be noted that the EEC has been attempting to reduce dairy production for years to clear away massive stockpiles of butter and powdered milk. French cows eat more butter and milk than most Frenchmen.) The London Financial Times estimated the drought damage for France alone at $5 to $6 billion in foreign trade balance-of-payments aid to farmers and lost hydro-electric power. EIR – Executive Intelligence Review (1976): “European Livestock Herds Slaughtered As Continent-Wide Drought Continues” (International Market Newsletter Section). EIR 3(29), July-20-1976. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 1/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - reduce prescribed flow in River Usk at Rhadyr, Gwent. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 10/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) South/East Wales - 1 million people were subjected to rotacuts for 7 to 11 weeks July to September leaving people without water for up to 17 hours between 2pm and 7am. Wales West Wales and The Valleys National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 10/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) South/East Wales - 1 million people were subjected to rotacuts for 7 to 11 weeks July to September leaving people without water for up to 17 hours between 2pm and 7am. Wales West Wales and The Valleys National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7/1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Harvested barley was of poor quality with many small pinched grains, yields were small and in some places there was total crop failure. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe Nederland 7/1976 7/1977 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) Due to a lack of water, the Markermeer could not get flushed, with as a result chloride levels that exceed the threshold (for illustration; in 1975 954 million m3 water was used for flushing the lake, in 1976 this was 552 million m3 water) Oost-Nederland; Flevoland; Flevoland; Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, Rijkswaterstaat direktie Noord-Holland, "Rapportage droogte 1976", Rapport SDIJ 77.05, 1977
1975-76 Europe Nederland 7/1976 9/1976 14.5 other During the large drought in 1976, fresh vegetables became so expensive that most of the people only ate canned vegetables. Companies tried adapted working hours, starting earlier in the morning and quitting after lunch, but people were too tired of the heat. Noord-Nederland; Friesland; Halbe Hettema, "Hitte en droogte teisterden Friesland in 1976", Leeuwarder Courant, 15 August 2001
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7/1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Although the quality of harvested wheat was good, the grain size was poor and shrivelled and yields below average. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7/1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Winter crops died off prematurely due to the hot dry weather. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe Danmark 7/1976 10/1976 9.4 Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species Moth Iversen et al. Studied the effects of drought on macro invertebrate communities of small streams in Denmark. At the end of July 1976 the stream Orned Baek (length about 6 km) dried- up and remained dry for 2-3 months due to extremely low precipitation. At least during the preceding five years drying-up had not occurred at that stream. Moth Iversen et al. Observed considerable changes in the macro invertebrate community: The disappearance of Gammarus pulex after the drought, which had been common in the stream at least since 1972, was striking. Moth Iversen et al. concluded that Gammarus puplex will be able to survive a short drought, but a drying-up period of more than a month will wipe out the population. After stream flow had recovered to a normal situation many new species appeared, most of which, however, disappeared rapidly again. Asellus aquaticus appears to be the only species which, after invasion, maintained a population in Orned Baek. Probably the lack of competition from Gammarus pulex was the reason for its success. Danmark; Danmark; Vestsjællands amt; Moth Iversen, T., P. Wiberg-Larsen, S. Hansen, and F. Hansen (1978), The effect of partial and total drought on the macroinvertebrate communities of three small Danish streams, Hydrobiologia, 60(3), 235-242.
1975-76 Europe Danmark 7/1976 10/1976 9.14 other Moth Iversen et al. Studied the effects of drought on macro invertebrate communities of small streams in Denmark. At the end of July 1976 the stream Orned Baek (length about 6 km) dried- up and remained dry for 2-3 months due to extremely low precipitation. At least during the preceding five years drying-up had not occurred at that stream. Moth Iversen et al. Observed considerable changes in the macro invertebrate community: The disappearance of Gammarus pulex after the drought, which had been common in the stream at least since 1972, was striking. Moth Iversen et al. concluded that Gammarus puplex will be able to survive a short drought, but a drying-up period of more than a month will wipe out the population. After stream flow had recovered to a normal situation many new species appeared, most of which, however, disappeared rapidly again. Asellus aquaticus appears to be the only species which, after invasion, maintained a population in Orned Baek. Probably the lack of competition from Gammarus pulex was the reason for its success. Danmark; Danmark; Vestsjællands amt; Moth Iversen, T., P. Wiberg-Larsen, S. Hansen, and F. Hansen (1978), The effect of partial and total drought on the macroinvertebrate communities of three small Danish streams, Hydrobiologia, 60(3), 235-242.
1975-76 Europe Danmark 7/1976 10/1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Moth Iversen et al. Studied the effects of drought on macro invertebrate communities of small streams in Denmark. At the end of July 1976 the stream Orned Baek (length about 6 km) dried- up and remained dry for 2-3 months due to extremely low precipitation. At least during the preceding five years drying-up had not occurred at that stream. Moth Iversen et al. Observed considerable changes in the macro invertebrate community: The disappearance of Gammarus pulex after the drought, which had been common in the stream at least since 1972, was striking. Moth Iversen et al. concluded that Gammarus puplex will be able to survive a short drought, but a drying-up period of more than a month will wipe out the population. After stream flow had recovered to a normal situation many new species appeared, most of which, however, disappeared rapidly again. Asellus aquaticus appears to be the only species which, after invasion, maintained a population in Orned Baek. Probably the lack of competition from Gammarus pulex was the reason for its success. Danmark; Danmark; Vestsjællands amt; Moth Iversen, T., P. Wiberg-Larsen, S. Hansen, and F. Hansen (1978), The effect of partial and total drought on the macroinvertebrate communities of three small Danish streams, Hydrobiologia, 60(3), 235-242.
1975-76 Europe Danmark 7/1976 10/1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Moth Iversen et al. Studied the effects of drought on macro invertebrate communities of small streams in Denmark. At the end of July 1976 the stream Orned Baek (length about 6 km) dried- up and remained dry for 2-3 months due to extremely low precipitation. At least during the preceding five years drying-up had not occurred at that stream. Moth Iversen et al. Observed considerable changes in the macro invertebrate community: The disappearance of Gammarus pulex after the drought, which had been common in the stream at least since 1972, was striking. Moth Iversen et al. concluded that Gammarus puplex will be able to survive a short drought, but a drying-up period of more than a month will wipe out the population. After stream flow had recovered to a normal situation many new species appeared, most of which, however, disappeared rapidly again. Asellus aquaticus appears to be the only species which, after invasion, maintained a population in Orned Baek. Probably the lack of competition from Gammarus pulex was the reason for its success. Danmark; Danmark; Vestsjællands amt; Moth Iversen, T., P. Wiberg-Larsen, S. Hansen, and F. Hansen (1978), The effect of partial and total drought on the macroinvertebrate communities of three small Danish streams, Hydrobiologia, 60(3), 235-242.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 7/1976 1976 8.8 Problems with drinking water quality (e.g., increased treatment, violation of standards) In terms of quantitative water availability public water supply was only moderately affected by the drought in 1976. Much mire threatening were the observed water quality issues because of frequently significantly high contaminant loads observed in stream under extreme low flow conditions. Particularly in July 1976, when the purification capacity of the dry and cracked soil surfaces were reduced intense precipitation events can lead to the pollution of springs from shallow aquifers that are used for drinking water supply. Hence water quality problems were reported from many areas. In the canton Thurgau at one water work pumping of groundwater had to be temporarily stopped because of serious water quality problems. In another case a emergency chlorine disinfection facility (Notchloranlage) had to be installed in order to continue its use. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Ostschweiz; Thurgau; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Grassland production was limited in 1976 as it had been in 1975. While growth was adequate in the early part of 1976, by July it had slowed considerably and eventually ceased altogether. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7/1976 1.8 other Cereal crops were sown on an exceptionally large area and early growth was satisfactory, by late June and early July crops were deteriorating rapidly, making it necessary to begin harvest of cereal crops in mid-July, which was the earliest starting date of cereal crop harvest on record. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) At the beginning of July hosepipe bans were covering most of the areas served by the Severn-Trent, Yorkshire, Southern and South West Water Authorities and all the Wessex and Anglian Authorities' areas. During the month these bans were extended to cover completely the Southern, Thames and South West Water Authority areas. East Midlands; West Midlands; South East; South West; Yorkshire and The Humber; London; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9/1976 1.6 Forced reduction of stock(early selling/slaughtering) The reduced milk yields led to reduced sales for farmers in July, August and September - they were compensated later in the year. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) At the beginning of July hosepipe bans were covering most of the areas served by the Severn-Trent, Yorkshire, Southern and South West Water Authorities and all the Wessex and Anglian Authorities' areas. During the month these bans were extended to cover completely the Southern, Thames and South West Water Authority areas. East Midlands; West Midlands; South East; South West; Yorkshire and The Humber; London; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) At the beginning of July hosepipe bans were covering most of the areas served by the Severn-Trent, Yorkshire, Southern and South West Water Authorities and all the Wessex and Anglian Authorities' areas. During the month these bans were extended to cover completely the Southern, Thames and South West Water Authority areas. East Midlands; West Midlands; South East; South West; Yorkshire and The Humber; London; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 8/1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock By the end of summer animal feed had been heavily supplemented and they were in a lean condition. The most severe affects were seen in dairy herds and milk yields fell sharply in July and August. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 8/1976 1.6 Forced reduction of stock(early selling/slaughtering) By the end of summer animal feed had been heavily supplemented and they were in a lean condition. The most severe affects were seen in dairy herds and milk yields fell sharply in July and August. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9/1976 1.8 other A common problem in July, August and September was the poisoning of grazing stock attributed to substances such as nitrate, lead and certain weeds. Some of these instances were directly attributable to the bare pastures and stock foraging in hedge bottoms for food. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9/1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock A common problem in July, August and September was the poisoning of grazing stock attributed to substances such as nitrate, lead and certain weeds. Some of these instances were directly attributable to the bare pastures and stock foraging in hedge bottoms for food. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9/1976 1.8 other A common problem in July, August and September was the poisoning of grazing stock attributed to substances such as nitrate, lead and certain weeds. Some of these instances were due to a failure of the water supply and the use of unsatisfactory secondary supplies. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 9/1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock A common problem in July, August and September was the poisoning of grazing stock attributed to substances such as nitrate, lead and certain weeds. Some of these instances were due to a failure of the water supply and the use of unsatisfactory secondary supplies. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) About 2,000 people in Dyfed were directly affected by the drought. Supplies were shut off each night from 19th July. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) About 2,000 people in Dyfed were directly affected by the drought. Supplies were shut off each night from 19th July. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) About 100,000 people in Gwent were directly affected by the drought. Supplies were shut off each night from 19th July. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Gwent Valleys; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 7/1976 7/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) About 100,000 people in Gwent were directly affected by the drought. Supplies were shut off each night from 19th July. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Gwent Valleys; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Pressure was reduced in the Thames Water Authority's Metropolitan Division, due to the risk of shrinking water supplies. London; South East; Outer London; Inner London; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 10.3 Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) 180 ha of heathland and peatland burned during August 1976. Very severe wildfires not only destroyed above-ground vegetation but also humus and peat was burnt to depths of up to 150 cm. This led to increased erosion of bare peat and mineral soil afterwards. The fires destroyed the habitat of Dartford Warblers and severely depleted local reptile populations. South West; Dorset and Somerset; Dorset CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 10.6 (Mid-/Long-term) deterioration of habitats 180 ha of heathland and peatland burned during August 1976. Very severe wildfires not only destroyed above-ground vegetation but also humus and peat was burnt to depths of up to 150 cm. This led to increased erosion of bare peat and mineral soil afterwards. The fires destroyed the habitat of Dartford Warblers and severely depleted local reptile populations. South West; Dorset and Somerset; Dorset CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 11.1 Drought-related erosion processes (loss of soil fertility) 180 ha of heathland and peatland burned during August 1976. Very severe wildfires not only destroyed above-ground vegetation but also humus and peat was burnt to depths of up to 150 cm. This led to increased erosion of bare peat and mineral soil afterwards. The fires destroyed the habitat of Dartford Warblers and severely depleted local reptile populations. South West; Dorset and Somerset; Dorset CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 12.1 Increased burned area 180 ha of heathland and peatland burned during August 1976. Very severe wildfires not only destroyed above-ground vegetation but also humus and peat was burnt to depths of up to 150 cm. This led to increased erosion of bare peat and mineral soil afterwards. The fires destroyed the habitat of Dartford Warblers and severely depleted local reptile populations. South West; Dorset and Somerset; Dorset CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires 180 ha of heathland and peatland burned during August 1976. Very severe wildfires not only destroyed above-ground vegetation but also humus and peat was burnt to depths of up to 150 cm. This led to increased erosion of bare peat and mineral soil afterwards. The fires destroyed the habitat of Dartford Warblers and severely depleted local reptile populations. South West; Dorset and Somerset; Dorset CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 12.3 Increased severity of wildfires 180 ha of heathland and peatland burned during August 1976. Very severe wildfires not only destroyed above-ground vegetation but also humus and peat was burnt to depths of up to 150 cm. This led to increased erosion of bare peat and mineral soil afterwards. The fires destroyed the habitat of Dartford Warblers and severely depleted local reptile populations. South West; Dorset and Somerset; Dorset CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Supplies to those areas without reservoir storage were becoming very difficult during August even where consumption had been cut. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Supplies to those areas without reservoir storage were becoming very difficult during August even where consumption had been cut. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Supplies to those areas without reservoir storage were becoming very difficult during August even where consumption had been cut. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Supplies to those areas without reservoir storage were becoming very difficult during August even where consumption had been cut. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Reservoirs in the south west serving much of Devon had between 20 and 50 days supply left, forcing regional authorities to apply emergency plans. South West; Devon; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Reservoirs in the south west serving much of Devon had between 20 and 50 days supply left, forcing regional authorities to apply emergency plans. South West; Devon; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) From 9th August nightly shut-offs applied to over 1 million consumers in south east Wales and to some isolated communities elsewhere in the Principality. Wales; East Wales; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) From 9th August nightly shut-offs applied to over 1 million consumers in south east Wales and to some isolated communities elsewhere in the Principality. Wales; East Wales; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water rationing was implemented on 15th August in Jersey, due to the risk of shrinking water supplies. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water rationing was implemented on 15th August in Jersey, due to the risk of shrinking water supplies. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Water rationing was implemented on 15th August in Jersey, due to the risk of shrinking water supplies. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Water rationing was implemented on 15th August in Jersey, due to the risk of shrinking water supplies. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Installation of standpipes commenced on 16th August 1976 in Bideford, due to the risk of shrinking water supplies. South West; Devon; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Installation of standpipes commenced on 16th August 1976 in Bideford, due to the risk of shrinking water supplies. South West; Devon; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Installation of standpipes commenced on 16th August 1976 in Bideford, due to the risk of shrinking water supplies. South West; Devon; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Installation of standpipes commenced on 16th August 1976 in Bideford, due to the risk of shrinking water supplies. South West; Devon; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) On 23rd August the shut-offs in south east Wales were extended to the period from 14:00 hours to 07:00 hours and the area increased to bring in Pontypridd which was affected by shut-offs during the night. Wales; East Wales; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) On 23rd August the shut-offs in south east Wales were extended to the period from 14:00 hours to 07:00 hours and the area increased to bring in Pontypridd which was affected by shut-offs during the night. Wales; East Wales; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) At the beginning of August the Severn-Trent Water Authority extended the hosepipe ban to the whole of its area. Wales; East Midlands; West Midlands; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) At the beginning of August the Severn-Trent Water Authority extended the hosepipe ban to the whole of its area. Wales; East Midlands; West Midlands; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) During August almost the whole country of Wales faced hosepipe bans. Wales; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) From 18th August the area served by the North West Water Authority was subject to a hosepipe ban, due to the risk of shrinking water supplies. North West; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) From 18th August the area served by the North West Water Authority was subject to a hosepipe ban, due to the risk of shrinking water supplies. North West; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) From 18th August the area served by the North West Water Authority was subject to a hosepipe ban, due to the risk of shrinking water supplies. North West; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 9/1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) Sales of milk were falling sharply in August and September 1976. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 9/1976 1.8 other Sales of milk were falling sharply in August and September 1976. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe Norge 8/1976 8/1976 12.1 Increased burned area The fire burned for days, 800 troops and firemen in action. Nearly 2500 acres of forest destroyed and caused millions of dollars in damage, but no injuries. Most of southern Norway like Western Europe in the grip of the worst reported drought. Norge; Sør-Østlandet; Telemark; The Telegraph-Herald - Aug 26, 1976, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Norge 8/1976 8/1976 12.3 Increased severity of wildfires The fire burned for days, 800 troops and firemen in action. Nearly 2500 acres of forest destroyed and caused millions of dollars in damage, but no injuries. Most of southern Norway like Western Europe in the grip of the worst reported drought. Norge; Sør-Østlandet; Telemark; The Telegraph-Herald - Aug 26, 1976, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Norge 8/1976 8/1976 12.5 Increased costs/economic losses The fire burned for days, 800 troops and firemen in action. Nearly 2500 acres of forest destroyed and caused millions of dollars in damage, but no injuries. Most of southern Norway like Western Europe in the grip of the worst reported drought. Norge; Sør-Østlandet; Telemark; The Telegraph-Herald - Aug 26, 1976, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) At the beginning of August the Severn-Trent Water Authority extended the hosepipe ban to the whole of its area. Wales; East Midlands; West Midlands; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) During August almost the whole country of Wales faced hosepipe bans. Wales; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 6.5 other Many of the fires in heathland, coastal, grassland and woodland areas occurred in areas of high recreation usage and as the drought continued and the fire hazard increased, organisations such as the Forestry Commission and the Nature Conservancy Council decided to restrict public access in certain areas - In Avon and Somerset closure notices were installed at the Avon Gorge, Ebbor Gorge and Shapwick Heath Reserves on 28th29th August 1976. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset;Dorset and Somerset North and North East Somerset, South Gloucestershire;Somerset Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 6.5 other Many of the fires in heathland, coastal, grassland and woodland areas occurred in areas of high recreation usage and as the drought continued and the fire hazard increased, organisations such as the Forestry Commission and the Nature Conservancy Council decided to restrict public access in certain areas - In Scotland only the reserve at Tentsmuir and Morton Lochs were subject to access restrictions. Scotland Eastern Scotland Clackmannanshire and Fife Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 6.5 other Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - Dalby Forest, North Yorkshire. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire North Yorkshire CC Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 6.5 other Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - Mortimer Forest, Shropshire. West Midlands Shropshire and Staffordshire Shropshire CC Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 6.5 other Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - all forests in South West Region. Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - all forests in South West Region. South West Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 6.5 other Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - the forest trail at Wykeham in North Yorkshire. Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - the forest trail at Wykeham in North Yorkshire. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 6.5 other Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - the forest drive at Hamerterly, Durham. Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - the forest drive at Hamerterly, Durham. North East Tees Valley and Durham Durham CC Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 6.5 other Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - the forest drives at Keilder, Northumberland. North East Tees Valley and Durham Northumberland Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 6.5 other Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - the forest drives at Cwmcarn, Gwent. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 10/1976 6.5 other The nature trail Aston Rowant, Oxfordshire, was particularly damaged by the drought which exacerbated the cumulative effect of 8000 annual visitors to this dry chalk grassland area. The trail remained closed until midOctober and even then was rerouted away from the most damaged areas. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 2/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - pump additional 3.1mgd from Llyn Cwellyn, West Gwynedd, to support downstream abstraction. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwynedd Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 2/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - reduce residual flow in Afon Aled Isaf from 4.0mgd to 2.5mgd and pump 5mgd from Llyn Aled, Gwynedd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 2/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - reduce residual flow in Afon Aled Isaf from 4.0mgd to 2.5mgd and pump 5mgd from Llyn Aled, Gwynedd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwynedd Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 10/1976 10.7 Irreversible deterioration/loss of habitats The nature trail Aston Rowant, Oxfordshire, was particularly damaged by the drought which exacerbated the cumulative effect of 8000 annual visitors to this dry chalk grassland area. The trail remained closed until midOctober and even then was rerouted away from the most damaged areas. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 12.1 Increased burned area The Dorest heaths in particular were severely damaged and the fires at these sites were extensively reported in the press and on television. The most significant effect of the fires was to destroy Culluna heath and some 180ha of the Hartland Moor National Nature Reserve were burnt in August 1976. Much of this was affected by severe or very severe burning where all above ground vegetation was destroyed and in places subsurface humus and peat burnt to depths of up to 150cm. Subsequently the bare peat and soil was eroded by the heavy rain that followed the drought. South West Dorset and Somerset Dorset CC Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 2/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - pump additional 3.1mgd from Llyn Cwellyn, West Gwynedd, to support downstream abstraction. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwynedd Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 2/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - pump additional 3.1mgd from Llyn Cwellyn, West Gwynedd, to support downstream abstraction. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwynedd Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 11/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - prohibitions/limitations on prescribed users of water in SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 11/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Drought Order - prohibitions/limitations on prescribed users of water in SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 11/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - prohibitions/limitations on prescribed users of water in SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 11/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Drought Order - prohibitions/limitations on prescribed users of water in SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 2/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - reduce residual flow in Afon Aled Isaf from 4.0mgd to 2.5mgd and pump 5mgd from Llyn Aled, Gwynedd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 2/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - reduce residual flow in Afon Aled Isaf from 4.0mgd to 2.5mgd and pump 5mgd from Llyn Aled, Gwynedd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Conwy and Denbighshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 2/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - reduce residual flow in Afon Aled Isaf from 4.0mgd to 2.5mgd and pump 5mgd from Llyn Aled, Gwynedd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwynedd Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 2/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - reduce residual flow in Afon Aled Isaf from 4.0mgd to 2.5mgd and pump 5mgd from Llyn Aled, Gwynedd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwynedd Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) For a period from 23rd August 1976 nearly one million people in south east Wales only received supplies through their taps from 07.00 to 14.00 hours. Wales East Wales Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) For a period from 23rd August 1976 nearly one million people in south east Wales only received supplies through their taps from 07.00 to 14.00 hours. Wales East Wales Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - the forest drives at Cwmcarn, Gwent. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - Dalby Forest, North Yorkshire. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire North Yorkshire CC Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - the forest drives at Keilder, Northumberland. North East Tees Valley and Durham Northumberland Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - Mortimer Forest, Shropshire. West Midlands Shropshire and Staffordshire Shropshire CC Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 Many of the fires in heathland, coastal, grassland and woodland areas occurred in areas of high recreation usage and as the drought continued and the fire hazard increased, organisations such as the Forestry Commission and the Nature Conservancy Council decided to restrict public access in certain areas - In Avon and Somerset closure notices were installed at the Avon Gorge, Ebbor Gorge and Shapwick Heath Reserves on 28th29th August 1976. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset;Dorset and Somerset North and North East Somerset, South Gloucestershire;Somerset Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - the forest trail at Wykeham in North Yorkshire. Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - the forest trail at Wykeham in North Yorkshire. Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - all forests in South West Region. Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - all forests in South West Region. South West Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 Large areas of forest were also under threat from excessive fire damage and the Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - the forest drive at Hamerterly, Durham. Forestry Commission restricted public access to forests in many areas - the forest drive at Hamerterly, Durham. North East Tees Valley and Durham Durham CC Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 8/1976 8/1976 Many of the fires in heathland, coastal, grassland and woodland areas occurred in areas of high recreation usage and as the drought continued and the fire hazard increased, organisations such as the Forestry Commission and the Nature Conservancy Council decided to restrict public access in certain areas - In Scotland only the reserve at Tentsmuir and Morton Lochs were subject to access restrictions. Scotland Eastern Scotland Clackmannanshire and Fife Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Pontnewynydd Springs. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Bwllfa Lake, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Central Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Nant Ffrwd at Ynysybwl, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Central Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 9/1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) Some factories had to reduce their working staff, because in-house water reservoirs had run dry. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 9/1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) In September 1976, a seaweed processing factory at Barcaldine near Oban had to lay off its workforce of 125 because its reservoir had dried up. Scotland; Highlands and Islands; Lochaber, Skye and Lochalsh and Argyll and the; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Nant Ffrwd at Ynysybwl, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Central Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Nant Amman Fawr, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Nant Amman Fawr, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - reduce compensation flow from Cwmystraddlyn Reservoir, Gwynedd, from 1.3mgd to 0.5mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwynedd Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - reduce compensation flow from Cwmystraddlyn Reservoir, Gwynedd, from 1.3mgd to 0.5mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwynedd Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 9/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Hosepipe bans covered all of the Yorkshire Water Authority area, all the Severn-Trent area except a small part in the south and all of the Welsh National Water Development Authority area except the Conway Valley. Wales; Yorkshire and The Humber; East Midlands; West Midlands; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 9/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Hosepipe bans covered all of the Yorkshire Water Authority area, all the Severn-Trent area except a small part in the south and all of the Welsh National Water Development Authority area except the Conway Valley. Wales; Yorkshire and The Humber; East Midlands; West Midlands; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Nightly shut-offs of water supply began in parts of Belfast on 8th September. Northern Ireland; Northern Ireland; Belfast; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Nightly shut-offs of water supply began in parts of Belfast on 8th September. Northern Ireland; Northern Ireland; Belfast; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 12/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - reduce compensation flow from Llyn CraigyPistyll Reservoir from 0.4mgd to 0.05mgd. Suspend prescribed flow in Maesnant and NantyMoch streams, West Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 12/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - reduce compensation flow from Llyn CraigyPistyll Reservoir from 0.4mgd to 0.05mgd. Suspend prescribed flow in Maesnant and NantyMoch streams, West Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 12/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - reduce prescribed flow in Stembridge Stream from 0.01mgd to 0.02mgd, South West Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 12/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - reduce prescribed flow in Stembridge Stream from 0.01mgd to 0.02mgd, South West Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - gave the Welsh National Water Development Authority authorisation to permit others to make temporary abstractions. Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - gave the Welsh National Water Development Authority authorisation to permit others to make temporary abstractions. Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 9/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) The 17-, 13- and 12-hour cuts of domestic water supply were prolonged during September in south east Wales. Wales; East Wales; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 9/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) The 17-, 13- and 12-hour cuts of domestic water supply were prolonged during September in south east Wales. Wales; East Wales; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Standpipes were brought into use on 15th September to serve some 80,000 people. South West; Devon; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Standpipes were brought into use on 15th September to serve some 80,000 people. South West; Devon; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 9/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) In the Yorkshire Water Authority's South Western Division the erection of standpipes started on 3rd September, progress in installing standpipes was maintained in North Devon and installation commenced in the Plymouth area on 6th September, due to shrinking water supplies. Yorkshire and The Humber; South West; West Yorkshire; Devon; Plymouth; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 9/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) In the Yorkshire Water Authority's South Western Division the erection of standpipes started on 3rd September, progress in installing standpipes was maintained in North Devon and installation commenced in the Plymouth area on 6th September, due to shrinking water supplies. Yorkshire and The Humber; South West; West Yorkshire; Devon; Plymouth; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 9/1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In the Yorkshire Water Authority's South Western Division the erection of standpipes started on 3rd September, progress in installing standpipes was maintained in North Devon and installation commenced in the Plymouth area on 6th September, due to shrinking water supplies. Yorkshire and The Humber; South West; West Yorkshire; Devon; Plymouth; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 9/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In the Yorkshire Water Authority's South Western Division the erection of standpipes started on 3rd September, progress in installing standpipes was maintained in North Devon and installation commenced in the Plymouth area on 6th September, due to shrinking water supplies. Yorkshire and The Humber; South West; West Yorkshire; Devon; Plymouth; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 1976 4.4 other From 1st September industry in north Gwent was asked to reduce consumption by 50%. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Gwent Valleys; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Water supplies of the South West Water Authority in Devon were severely affected by drought and there was an increased risk of insufficient water supplies in regions without groundwater extraction and usage. South West; Devon; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Water supplies of the South West Water Authority in Devon were severely affected by drought and there was an increased risk of insufficient water supplies in regions without groundwater extraction and usage. South West; Devon; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supplies of the South West Water Authority in Devon were severely affected by drought and there was an increased risk of insufficient water supplies in regions without groundwater extraction and usage. South West; Devon; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supplies of the South West Water Authority in Devon were severely affected by drought and there was an increased risk of insufficient water supplies in regions without groundwater extraction and usage. South West; Devon; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - reduce compensation flow from LlynyFan Fach Reservoir, South West Wales, from 0.4mgd to 0.1mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - reduce compensation flow from LlynyFan Fach Reservoir, South West Wales, from 0.4mgd to 0.1mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 12/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - reduce compensation flow from Prescelly Rosebush Reservoir, South West Wales, from 0.4mgd to 0.05mgd and reduce the prescribed flows in River East Cleddau. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 12/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - reduce compensation flow from Prescelly Rosebush Reservoir, South West Wales, from 0.4mgd to 0.05mgd and reduce the prescribed flows in River East Cleddau. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 12/1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Afon Brynberian, SW Wales - unlimited quantity subject to maintenance of prescribed flow. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 12/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Afon Brynberian, SW Wales - unlimited quantity subject to maintenance of prescribed flow. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Prohibit/limit prescribed users of water for 6 months, Hereford. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Prohibit/limit prescribed users of water for 6 months, Hereford. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Back Brook, Hereford. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Back Brook, Hereford. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Additional abstractions and reduce residual flow on River Arrow at Hergest, Hereford. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Additional abstractions and reduce residual flow on River Arrow at Hergest, Hereford. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - reduce compensation water from Caban Coch Reservoir, Midlands. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Warwickshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - reduce compensation water from Caban Coch Reservoir, Midlands. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Warwickshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from River Usk at Rhadyr, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Monmouthshire and Newport Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Pontnewynydd Springs. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Bwllfa Lake, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Central Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Reduction of compensation flows at Talybont Grwyne Farw Reservoir, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Additional abstractions from River Grwyne Fawr at BlaenyCwm, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Direction 1976 made by the Secretary of State prescribing the purposes for which water authorities could prohibit or limit the use of water: 1) watering of parks, gardens, playing grounds, golf courses or racecourses. 2) filling of ponds or swimming pools. 3) operation of mechanical car washers. 4) washing of road vehicles for any reason other than safety or hygiene. 5) cleaning the exterior of buildings. 6)operation of fountains even where water is recycled. 7) operation of any cistern which flushes automatically during a period when the premises are not wholly occupied. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Drought Direction 1976 made by the Secretary of State prescribing the purposes for which water authorities could prohibit or limit the use of water: 1) watering of parks, gardens, playing grounds, golf courses or racecourses. 2) filling of ponds or swimming pools. 3) operation of mechanical car washers. 4) washing of road vehicles for any reason other than safety or hygiene. 5) cleaning the exterior of buildings. 6)operation of fountains even where water is recycled. 7) operation of any cistern which flushes automatically during a period when the premises are not wholly occupied. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Drought Direction 1976 made by the Secretary of State prescribing the purposes for which water authorities could prohibit or limit the use of water: 1) watering of parks, gardens, playing grounds, golf courses or racecourses. 2) filling of ponds or swimming pools. 3) operation of mechanical car washers. 4) washing of road vehicles for any reason other than safety or hygiene. 5) cleaning the exterior of buildings. 6)operation of fountains even where water is recycled. 7) operation of any cistern which flushes automatically during a period when the premises are not wholly occupied. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Additional abstractions from River Usk at Llandetty Hall, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Additional abstractions from River Usk at Rhadyr, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Monmouthshire and Newport Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Pontnewynydd Springs. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Bwllfa Lake, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Central Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Nant Ffrwd at Ynysybwl, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Central Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Nant Amman Fawr, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - reduce compensation flow from Cwmystraddlyn Reservoir, Gwynedd, from 1.3mgd to 0.5mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwynedd Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 12/1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - reduce compensation flow from Llyn CraigyPistyll Reservoir from 0.4mgd to 0.05mgd. Suspend prescribed flow in Maesnant and NantyMoch streams, West Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 12/1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - reduce prescribed flow in Stembridge Stream from 0.01mgd to 0.02mgd, South West Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - gave the Welsh National Water Development Authority authorisation to permit others to make temporary abstractions. Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - reduce compensation flow from LlynyFan Fach Reservoir, South West Wales, from 0.4mgd to 0.1mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 12/1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - reduce compensation flow from Prescelly Rosebush Reservoir, South West Wales, from 0.4mgd to 0.05mgd and reduce the prescribed flows in River East Cleddau. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 12/1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Afon Brynberian, SW Wales - unlimited quantity subject to maintenance of prescribed flow. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Prohibit/limit prescribed users of water for 6 months, Hereford. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Additional abstractions from Back Brook, Hereford. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Additional abstractions and reduce residual flow on River Arrow at Hergest, Hereford. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Herefordshire, County of Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - reduce compensation water from Caban Coch Reservoir, Midlands. West Midlands Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire Warwickshire Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Reduction of compensation flows at Cray Reservoir, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 10/1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) North Devon - 65,000 people were subjected to rationing by standpipe for 1 to 3 weeks. South West Devon Devon CC National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 10/1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) North Devon - 65,000 people were subjected to rationing by standpipe for 1 to 3 weeks. South West Devon Devon CC National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Reduction of compensation flows at Usk Reservoir, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - Reduction of compensation flows at Llandegfedd Reservoir, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Bridgend and Neath Port Talbot Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Reduction of compensation flows at Cray Reservoir, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Reduction of compensation flows at Cray Reservoir, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Reduction of compensation flows at Usk Reservoir, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Reduction of compensation flows at Usk Reservoir, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Reduction of compensation flows at Llandegfedd Reservoir, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Bridgend and Neath Port Talbot Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Reduction of compensation flows at Llandegfedd Reservoir, SE Wales. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Bridgend and Neath Port Talbot Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Reduction of compensation flows at Talybont Grwyne Farw Reservoir, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Reduction of compensation flows at Talybont Grwyne Farw Reservoir, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from River Grwyne Fawr at BlaenyCwm, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from River Grwyne Fawr at BlaenyCwm, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from River Usk at Llandetty Hall, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from River Usk at Llandetty Hall, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Powys Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 9/1976 3/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - Additional abstractions from River Usk at Rhadyr, SE Wales. Wales East Wales Monmouthshire and Newport Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 10/1976 1/1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Drought Order - suspend compensation water and additional abstraction from Afon Teifi, West Wales, of 0.5mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 10/1976 1/1977 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Drought Order - suspend compensation water and additional abstraction from Afon Teifi, West Wales, of 0.5mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 10/1976 1/1977 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Drought Order - suspend compensation water and additional abstraction from Afon Teifi, West Wales, of 0.5mgd. Wales West Wales and The Valleys South West Wales Welsh National Water Development Authority Technical Data/Information Bank 1976 'The 19751976 Drought'
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality Increased temperature and pollution in surface waters especially behind purification plants and industry. Reduction of the oxygen content in the river, especially near Kleinostheim and Kahl. Bayern; Unterfranken; LfW-Bay, Die Trockenperiode 1976. Eine Hydrologische Monographie und eine Niedrigwasseranalyse, Schriftenreihe Bayrisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft Heft 12, Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, München.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 The fires depleted the reptile population. Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) South-West Water Authority Regional water supplies failed during the drought and water had to be rationed. Wales; South West; East Wales; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Devon; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Devon CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 1.3 Reduced productivity of permanent crop cultivation According to data from the Schweizerisches Bauernsekretariat (in Schorer, 1992) on the canton level the 1976 yields of winter wheat, late and early potatoes, hay as well as 'Emd' were significantly lower than the mean of the period 1971-1980 in Grisons. However Schorer (1992) stresses that in the case of Grisons the canton average values do not reflect real conditions very well because the local conditions were extremely heterogeneous, with some parts clearly suffering from prolonged drought while others seemed only weakly affected due to relief by local thunderstorm rainfalls. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Ostschweiz; Graubünden; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 1.2 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation, losses > 30% (EU compensation treshold) According to data from the Schweizerisches Bauernsekretariat (in Schorer, 1992) on the canton level the 1976 yields of winter wheat, late and early potatoes, hay as well as 'Emd' were significantly lower than the mean of the period 1971-1980 in Grisons. However Schorer (1992) stresses that in the case of Grisons the canton average values do not reflect real conditions very well because the local conditions were extremely heterogeneous, with some parts clearly suffering from prolonged drought while others seemed only weakly affected due to relief by local thunderstorm rainfalls. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Ostschweiz; Graubünden; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. According to data from the Schweizerisches Bauernsekretariat (in Schorer, 1992) on the canton level the 1976 yields of winter wheat, late and early potatoes, hay as well as 'Emd' were significantly lower than the mean of the period 1971-1980 in Grisons. However Schorer (1992) stresses that in the case of Grisons the canton average values do not reflect real conditions very well because the local conditions were extremely heterogeneous, with some parts clearly suffering from prolonged drought while others seemed only weakly affected due to relief by local thunderstorm rainfalls. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Ostschweiz; Graubünden; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 1.3 Reduced productivity of permanent crop cultivation For Potatoes (early species) yield losses of 37% and 30% in the cantons of Vaud and Freiburg respectively. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Espace Mittelland; Région Lémanique; Freiburg; Vaud; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. In 1976 the grain yields in Central and Eastern parts of Switzerland were even on an above average level, whereas in Western Switzerland severe precipitation deficits from March until June adversely affected especially summer wheat. Yield losses compared to the mean of the period 1971-80 were in the range of 10-20% which is about the same as yield losses observed during the drought of 1947 in the most affected areas. Analogously to the grain crops also considerable yield losses for potatoes concentrated mainly on Western Switzerland. Losses for early species sometimes exceeded 30%, late potatoes species benefited from the rainfalls in the second half of the year, and thus were generally less affected. Yet losses up to 20% were observed in Western Switzerland. In terms of grassland production the largest yield losses (besides Grisons) were registered in the Western parts of the country as well. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Région Lémanique; Espace Mittelland; Genève; Valais; Vaud; Bern; Neuchâtel; Freiburg; Jura; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality tree ring width measurement series of 11,873 living and historical firs were compiled from low- to mid-elevation forests (<900 m asl) in France, Switzerland, Germany, and the Czech Republic were analysed by Büntgen et al. (2011). 1976 was identified as a negative fir tree ring width extreme for all investigated regions. The spatial anomaly patterns for the 20 most positive and the 20 most negative growth extremes are related to wet and dry springtime climate across the three regional fir subsets. Est; Alsace; Franche-Comté; Lorraine; Büntgen U, Trouet V, Frank D, Leuschner HH, Friedrichs D, Luterbacher J, Esper J 2010: Tree-ring indicators of German summer drought over the last millennium. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(7–8): 1005-1016.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Tree ring width measurement series of 11,873 living and historical firs were compiled from low- to mid-elevation forests (<900 m asl) in France, Switzerland, Germany, and the Czech Republic were analysed by Büntgen et al. (2011). 1976 was identified as a negative fir tree ring width extreme for all investigated regions. The spatial anomaly patterns for the 20 most positive and the 20 most negative growth extremes are related to wet and dry springtime climate across the three regional fir subsets. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Espace Mittelland; Nordwestschweiz; Zürich; Jura; Basel-landschaft; Aargau; Zürich; Büntgen, U., R. Brázdil, K.-U. Heussner, J. Hofmann, R. Kontic, T. Kyncl, C. Pfister, K. Chromá, and W. Tegel. 2011. Combined dendro-documentary evidence of Central European hydroclimatic springtime extremes over the last millennium. Quaternary Science Re
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Reductions in river flow which were specially authorised under Drought Orders caused deterioration if river water quality and water supplies drawn from rivers. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Algal blooms in River Ouse forced a reduction in abstraction for supplies in Bedford. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Bedfordshire CC National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality tree ring width measurement series of 11,873 living and historical firs were compiled from low- to mid-elevation forests (<900 m asl) in France, Switzerland, Germany, and the Czech Republic were analysed by Büntgen et al. (2011). 1976 was identified as a negative fir tree ring width extreme for all investigated regions. The spatial anomaly patterns for the 20 most positive and the 20 most negative growth extremes are related to wet and dry springtime climate across the three regional fir subsets. Baden-Württemberg; Bayern; Hessen; Sachsen; Thüringen; Büntgen, U., R. Brázdil, K.-U. Heussner, J. Hofmann, R. Kontic, T. Kyncl, C. Pfister, K. Chromá, and W. Tegel. 2011. Combined dendro-documentary evidence of Central European hydroclimatic springtime extremes over the last millennium. Quaternary Science Re
1975-76 Europe Ceská Republika 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality tree ring width measurement series of 11,873 living and historical firs were compiled from low- to mid-elevation forests (<900 m asl) in France, Switzerland, Germany, and the Czech Republic were analysed by Büntgen et al. (2011). 1976was identified as a negative fir tree ring width extreme for all investigated regions. The spatial anomaly patterns for the 20 most positive and the 20 most negative growth extremes are related to wet and dry springtime climate across the three regional fir subsets. Ceská Republika; Büntgen, U., R. Brázdil, K.-U. Heussner, J. Hofmann, R. Kontic, T. Kyncl, C. Pfister, K. Chromá, and W. Tegel. 2011. Combined dendro-documentary evidence of Central European hydroclimatic springtime extremes over the last millennium. Quaternary Science Re
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 5.1 Impaired navigability of streams (reduction of load, increased need of interim storage of goods at ports) Ships on the Elbe in Eastern Germany transported only 15% of their normal cargoes due to the low water levels. Sachsen; Sachsen-Anhalt; Beaver County Times - Jul 7, 1976, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Belgique-België 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Water cannon trucks, used to disperse rioters, were send to drought stricken villages in the Antwerp and Limburg provinces. Vlaams Gewest; Prov. Antwerpen; Prov. Limburg (B, NULL, NULL); Beaver County Times - Jul 7, 1976, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Belgique-België 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water cannon trucks, used to disperse rioters, were send to drought stricken villages in the Antwerp and Limburg provinces. Vlaams Gewest; Prov. Antwerpen; Prov. Limburg (B, NULL, NULL); Beaver County Times - Jul 7, 1976, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses The consequential damage and loss for agricultural production arising from the consecutive drought years 1975 and 1976 is reflected in the index of agricultural net product at constant price. This index fell to 89 in 1976 after values of 114 and 100 in the years 1974 and 1975. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Regional water supplies failed during the drought and water had to be rationed. Wales; East Wales; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Regional water supplies failed during the drought and water had to be rationed. Wales; East Wales; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Regional water supplies failed during the drought and water had to be rationed. Wales; East Wales; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Reservoirs of surface water in the area of the Southern Water Authorities were in danger of being depleted. South East; Surrey, East and West Sussex; West Sussex; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1976 4.2 Impaired production/shut down of thermal/nuclear powerplants (due to a lack of cooling water and/or environmental legislation for discharges into streams) Heat wave and drought events like e.g. in 2003 or 2006 affect amongst others the German electricity sector, especially the electricity production. High river water temperatures restrict thermal power plant operation (coal- and gas-fired, nuclear power plants). The media analysis by Mueller et al. (2007) shows that in nine years between 1976 and 2007, the load of German thermal power plants had to be reduced due to high water temperatures or low water levels: namely in 1976, 1989, 1991, 1994, 1995, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2007. Müller, U., S. Greis, and B. Rothstein. 2007. ‘Impacts on Water Temperatures of Selected German Rivers and on Electricity Production of Thermal Power Plants Due to Climate Change’. In Poster Publication, 8th Forum DKKV/CEDIM: Disaster Reduction in Climate Change Karlsruhe. Vol. 15. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 14.3 Excess mortality during heat waves In Poumadère et al. (2005) citing Hémon & Jougla (2003): Reanalysis of 50 years of historical data, prompted by the 2003 calamity, allowed INSERM (French Institute of Health and Medical Research) to identify 6,000 excess deaths in France for two weeks in the summer of 1976 (+30% over the prior three-year average). These excess deaths had never before been identified, although the data had been available for 27 years. Hémon & Jougla (2003): Hémon,D., Jougla, E. (2003). Surmortalité liée à la canicule d' aôut 2003—Rapport d’étape 1/2): Estimation de la surmortalité et principales caractéristiques épidémiologiques. September 25, 2003. Paris: INSERM. Http://www.sante.gouv.fr/ htm/actu/surmort canicule/sommaire.htm. Poumadère M, Mays C, Le Mer S, Blong R 2005: The 2003 Heat Wave in France: Dangerous Climate Change Here and Now, Risk Analysis, 25(6), 1483-1494.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.6 Forced reduction of stock(early selling/slaughtering) In France the drought of 1976 reached its peak between May and August. Overall, agricultural impacts were extreme, with milk yields down by 25 % and 20,000 pigs had to be slaughtered. Sheffield J, Wood EF 2011: Drought: past problems and future scenarios. Earthscan, London. (Chapter 7: Major Drought Events of the 20th Century)
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom The Ouse Washes dried out and salt water incursion occurred. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC;Norfolk Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) In France the drought of 1976 reached its peak between May and August. Overall, agricultural impacts were extreme, with milk yields down by 25 % and 20,000 pigs had to be slaughtered. Sheffield J, Wood EF 2011: Drought: past problems and future scenarios. Earthscan, London. (Chapter 7: Major Drought Events of the 20th Century)
1975-76 Europe France 1976 5.2 Stream closed for navigation Les transports fluviaux subirent des perturbations pendant tout l'été soit par suite de trop faibles tirants d'eau, imposant des limitations dans le chargement des péniches, soit en raison de la fermeture de certains canaux (en particulier dans le Centre ou en Bretagne) dont le maintien en eau entrait en compétition avec d'autres besoins (industrie, approvisionnement urbain) jugés plus prioritaires. Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe Ceská Republika 1976 1976 1.2 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation, losses > 30% (EU compensation treshold) Brázdil et al. (2009) studied crop 'yield deviation' (by applying a detrending procedure using the average annual yield against year-of-harvest for each crop resulting in values of non-standardized residuals) during droughts. They found an obvious tendency to below average yields (for spring barley, winter wheat, forage crops on arable land and hay yield from meadows) at Czech Republic level in almost all dry years. In all cases, the yield departures were significantly correlated with drought intensity. Generally the highest influence of drought on Czech national level crop yields may be found in the years 1922, 1934, 1947, 1976, 1988, 1992, 1993, 2000, and 2003. 1976: In 1976 at national level a negative yield deviation was ascertained * for spring barley and winter wheat (~ 10%) * for forage crops from arable land and hay meadows (~20%) Ho Ceská Republika; Brázdil, R., M. Trnka, P. Dobrovolný, K. Chromá, P. Hlavinka, and Z. Žalud (2009), Variability of droughts in the Czech Republic, 1881–2006, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 97(3-4), 297-315.
1975-76 Europe Ceská Republika 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Brázdil et al. (2009) studied crop 'yield deviation' (by applying a detrending procedure using the average annual yield against year-of-harvest for each crop resulting in values of non-standardized residuals) during droughts. They found an obvious tendency to below average yields (for spring barley, winter wheat, forage crops on arable land and hay yield from meadows) at Czech Republic level in almost all dry years. In all cases, the yield departures were significantly correlated with drought intensity. Generally the highest influence of drought on Czech national level crop yields may be found in the years 1922, 1934, 1947, 1976, 1988, 1992, 1993, 2000, and 2003. 1976: In 1976 at national level a negative yield deviation was ascertained * for spring barley and winter wheat (~ 10%) * for forage crops from arable land and hay meadows (~20%) Ho Ceská Republika; Brázdil, R., M. Trnka, P. Dobrovolný, K. Chromá, P. Hlavinka, and Z. Žalud (2009), Variability of droughts in the Czech Republic, 1881–2006, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 97(3-4), 297-315.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Affolter et al. (2010) analysed a network of 53 tree ring width (TRW) site chronologies, which covers a longitudinal west–east transect from Martigny to Fiesch spanning from 590 m to 1,570 m asl. It comprises 1,605 TRW measurement series from four conifer species: pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), larch (Larix decidua Mill.), spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), and fir (Abies alba Mill.). Among the altitudinal records, the colline chronologies showed highest correlation with June precipitation and drought indicator data. In particular, species-specific differences affected the significance level of drought response, with decreasing drought sensitivity towards higher elevations. Data from the colline and sub-montane sites contained a clear summer drought signal with expression of the drought events in 1921, 1944, 1976, 1992, and 1998. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Région Lémanique; Valais; Affolter, P., U. Büntgen, J. Esper, A. Rigling, P. Weber, J. Luterbacher, and D. Frank (2010), Inner Alpine conifer response to 20th century drought swings, Eur J Forest Res, 129(3), 289-298.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1976 1.3 Reduced productivity of permanent crop cultivation While the average reduction in agricultural yields due to the drought and heat wave were only about 10% for whole West Germany, in some regions, like Baden-Württemberg, some parts in Northern Bavaria and in the Eifel region the grain and maize harvest failed mostly. But according to the article German agriculture is far from being existentially threatened, also since income increases of 20 % had been registered in the previous year. Baden-Württemberg; Bayern; Nordrhein-Westfalen; Rheinland-Pfalz; Oberfranken; Oberpfalz; Köln; Koblenz; Unterfranken; SPIEGEL 33/1976 August-8 1976: „Dürre-Schäden. Besonders schlau. Horrormeldungen über Ernteschäden durch Trockenheit sollen dem Verbraucher suggerieren, Nahrungsmittel müssten knapp und teuer werden.“ Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. While the average reduction in agricultural yields due to the drought and heat wave were only about 10% for whole West Germany, in some regions, like Baden-Württemberg, some parts in Northern Bavaria and in the Eifel region the grain and maize harvest failed mostly. But according to the article German agriculture is far from being existentially threatened, also since income increases of 20 % had been registered in the previous year. Baden-Württemberg; Bayern; Nordrhein-Westfalen; Rheinland-Pfalz; Oberfranken; Oberpfalz; Köln; Koblenz; Unterfranken; SPIEGEL 33/1976 August-8 1976: „Dürre-Schäden. Besonders schlau. Horrormeldungen über Ernteschäden durch Trockenheit sollen dem Verbraucher suggerieren, Nahrungsmittel müssten knapp und teuer werden.“ Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock In some areas of Germany average harvest losses above 40% were observed, in the South West even up to 70%. In the swabian region for arable farming the second harvest failed completely. Significantly decreased milk production, while demand is high due to the hot weather. Livestock is brought to meagre pastures or directly to the slaughter. SPIEGEL 33/1976 August-8 1976: „Dürre-Schäden. Besonders schlau. Horrormeldungen über Ernteschäden durch Trockenheit sollen dem Verbraucher suggerieren, Nahrungsmittel müssten knapp und teuer werden.“ Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1.6 Forced reduction of stock(early selling/slaughtering) In some areas of Germany average harvest losses above 40% were observed, in the South West even up to 70%. In the swabian region for arable farming the second harvest failed completely. Significantly decreased milk production, while demand is high due to the hot weather. Livestock is brought to meagre pastures or directly to the slaughter. SPIEGEL 33/1976 August-8 1976: „Dürre-Schäden. Besonders schlau. Horrormeldungen über Ernteschäden durch Trockenheit sollen dem Verbraucher suggerieren, Nahrungsmittel müssten knapp und teuer werden.“ Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) In some areas of Germany average harvest losses above 40% were observed, in the South West even up to 70%. In the swabian region for arable farming the second harvest failed completely. Significantly decreased milk production, while demand is high due to the hot weather. Livestock is brought to meagre pastures or directly to the slaughter. SPIEGEL 33/1976 August-8 1976: „Dürre-Schäden. Besonders schlau. Horrormeldungen über Ernteschäden durch Trockenheit sollen dem Verbraucher suggerieren, Nahrungsmittel müssten knapp und teuer werden.“ Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Due to shortages in water supply the Bundeswehr (German federal defence) built up drinking water pipelines in the Saarland. Saarland; Saarland; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.11 other Even in woodlands untouched by fire, moisture stress and scorching affected many trees often causing an increase in the incidence of disease, particularly in beech trees. Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.11 other Even in woodlands untouched by fire, moisture stress and scorching affected many trees often causing an increase in the incidence of disease, Dutch Elm disease spread further north in 1976. Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Welsh National Water Development Authority total per capita demand in 1976 was 130139% of the average for England and Wales. Wales Park C.C. 1980 'Water demand' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.7 Irreversible deterioration/loss of habitats In many sand dune areas dune slacks prematurely dried up threatening the existence of certain plants and animals. Natterjack toads received particular attention and artificial ponds were excavated for them at Saltfleetby in Lincolnshire. Yorkshire and The Humber East Riding and North Lincolnshire North and North East Lincolnshire Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.7 Irreversible deterioration/loss of habitats In many sand dune areas dune slacks prematurely dried up threatening the existence of certain plants and animals. Natterjack toads received particular attention and artificial ponds were excavated for them at Drigg in Cumbria. North West Cumbria West Cumbria Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Due to shortages in water supply the Bundeswehr (German federal defence) built up drinking water pipelines in the Saarland. Saarland; Saarland; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.1 Drought-related erosion processes (loss of soil fertility) As a result of low rainfall inputs to the North York Moors National Park during the summer of 1976, the peaty podzolic soils underwent extreme desiccation - all available moisture was removed from the rooting zone of the dominant vegetation community, heather (Calluna vulgaris). Yorkshire and The Humber North Yorkshire Arnett R.R. 1980 'Soil erosion and heather burning on the North York Moors' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.1 Drought-related erosion processes (loss of soil fertility) Sand dune and cliff sites that are normally heavily used by holiday makers suffered further damage during the drought and increased erosion occurred at Bedruthan Steps and the Lizard in Cornwall. South West Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.1 Drought-related erosion processes (loss of soil fertility) Sand dune and cliff sites that are normally heavily used by holiday makers suffered further damage during the drought and increased erosion occurred on the Gower Coast. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Swansea Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.1 Drought-related erosion processes (loss of soil fertility) Sand dune and cliff sites that are normally heavily used by holiday makers suffered further damage during the drought and increased erosion occurred on Great Orme, Llandudno. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwynedd Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.1 Drought-related erosion processes (loss of soil fertility) At Kynance Cove in Cornwall the footpath reseeding programme was severely affected by the combination of drought conditions and excessive trampling. South West Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Some communities in Franconia had to be supplied by means of truck tanks Bayern; Mittelfranken; Oberfranken; Unterfranken; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Dorset compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. South West Dorset and Somerset Dorset CC Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Hampshire compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Hampshire CC Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage on the Isle of Wight compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Isle of Wight Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in West Sussex compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex Kent CC Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in East Sussex compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex East Sussex CC Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Avon compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset;Dorset and Somerset North and North East Somerset, South Gloucestershire;Somerset Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Gloucestershire compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Gloucestershire Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Berkshire compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Berkshire Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Surrey compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex Surrey Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Essex compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. East Of England Essex Essex CC Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Hertfordshire compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Hertfordshire Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Greater London compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. London Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Buckinghamshire compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 95%. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Buckinghamshire CC Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Oxfordshire compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 99%. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Oxfordshire Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Kent compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 95%. South East Kent Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Chisquared analysis showed that 1976 claims for subsidence damage in Northamptonshire compared with the national average to be significantly different in excess at 95%. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire, NULL, NULL);North Northamptonshire (East Northamptonshire, Corby, Wellingborough and Kettering) Clark M.J. 1980 'Property damage by foundation failure' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Some communities in Franconia had to be supplied by means of truck tanks Bayern; Mittelfranken; Oberfranken; Unterfranken; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Wurzburg suffered from water supply shortages Bayern; Unterfranken; Würzburg, Kreisfreie Stadt; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Wurzburg suffered from water supply shortages Bayern; Unterfranken; Würzburg, Kreisfreie Stadt; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) Due to extremely high river water temperatures of the River Saar (up to 40°C) water use restrictions were effective and affected the power plant Ensdorf. The Dillinger Hütte (a steel produced, usually pumping 50 m³/min from the Saar) had to shut down operation. Saarland; Saarland; Saarlouis; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 4.2 Impaired production/shut down of thermal/nuclear powerplants (due to a lack of cooling water and/or environmental legislation for discharges into streams) Due to extremely high river water temperatures of the River Saar (up to 40°C) water use restrictions were effective and affected the power plant Ensdorf. The Dillinger Hütte (a steel produced, usually pumping 50 m³/min from the Saar) had to shut down operation. Saarland; Saarland; Saarlouis; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.3 (Temporary) impairment of ecological status of surface waters (according to EU Water Framework Directive) Extreme water temperatures at the River Saar. Especially at the power plant Ensdorf water temperatures of 40 ° were observed at the end of June Saarland; Saarland; Saarlouis; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) Extreme water temperatures at the River Saar. Especially at the power plant Ensdorf water temperatures of 40 ° were observed at the end of June Saarland; Saarland; Saarlouis; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Difficulties with activated sludge plants. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires The outdoor fire hazard was increased in 1976 - in summer 1974 there was a monthly average of 4,847 vegetation fires in the UK but the comparable average in 1976 was 48,674. Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires There were 34 fires per month in the summer of 1976 in Dumfries/Galloway. Scotland South Western Scotland Dumfries and Galloway Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires There were 6,301 fires per month in the summer of 1976 in London. London Maltby E. 1980 'The environmental fire hazard in 1976' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality Extreme water temperatures at the River Saar. Especially at the power plant Ensdorf water temperatures of 40 ° were observed at the end of June Saarland; Saarland; Saarlouis; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) At many (West-) German rivers oxygen supply measures were taken, because high pollution loads were observed (due to lower dilution capacity of streams affected by domestic and industrial sewage disposals). For instance 2000 litres of oxygen rich water per minute is pressed by compressors into Hannover's River Leine Niedersachsen; Hannover; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) At many (West-) German rivers oxygen supply measures were taken, because high pollution loads were observed (due to lower dilution capacity of streams affected by domestic and industrial sewage disposals). SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality At many (West-) German rivers oxygen supply measures were taken, because high pollution loads were observed (due to lower dilution capacity of streams affected by domestic and industrial sewage disposals). SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) At many (West-) German rivers oxygen supply measures were taken, because high pollution loads were observed (due to lower dilution capacity of streams affected by domestic and industrial sewage disposals). SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires By beginning of July 1976 (release of the article) already 650 forest fires had been registered in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Nordrhein-Westfalen; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) Damages in agriculture and livestock farming, reaching e.g. in Rheinland-Pfalz and Hessen billion (D-Mark) level. SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1.2 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation, losses > 30% (EU compensation treshold) Damages in agriculture and livestock farming, reaching e.g. in Rheinland-Pfalz and Hessen billion (D-Mark) level. SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Damages in agriculture and livestock farming, reaching e.g. in Rheinland-Pfalz and Hessen billion (D-Mark) level. SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1976 14.1 Heat stress problems (if drought is associated with a heatwave) In the cities ambulances picked up heat victims day and night. In Frankfurt 44 hospital beds are reserved for heat stress induced emergencies. Hessen; Darmstadt; Frankfurt am Main, Kreisfreie Stadt; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe France 1976 4.5 Increased costs/economic losses Due to insufficient precipitation in 1975 the large dams (used for hydropower production) were filled only significantly below their normal volume. Already in February 1976 measures had to been taken to use mainly thermoelectric power to preserve a minimum water level in the reservoirs. During the drought of 1976 due the impaired power production of both hydropower plants as well as thermic and nuclear power plants (because of high stream water temperatures and low flow) a energy supply shortage situation developed in France (deficit of about 15 billion KWH) and had to be compensatedby using abandoned thermic power plants and imports of energy from abroad (in particular from Spain and Italy). Despite this , the French Electricity Board had to reduce the distribution voltage by 5%. EEA (2001), Sustainable water use in Europe, Part 3: Extreme hydrological events: floods and droughts, Environemental issue sreport no. 21Rep., European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe France 1976 4.2 Impaired production/shut down of thermal/nuclear powerplants (due to a lack of cooling water and/or environmental legislation for discharges into streams) Due to insufficient precipitation in 1975 the large dams (used for hydropower production) were filled only significantly below their normal volume. Already in February 1976 measures had to been taken to use mainly thermoelectric power to preserve a minimum water level in the reservoirs. During the drought of 1976 due the impaired power production of both hydropower plants as well as thermic and nuclear power plants (because of high stream water temperatures and low flow) a energy supply shortage situation developed in France (deficit of about 15 billion KWH) and had to be compensatedby using abandoned thermic power plants and imports of energy from abroad (in particular from Spain and Italy). Despite this , the French Electricity Board had to reduce the distribution voltage by 5%. EEA (2001), Sustainable water use in Europe, Part 3: Extreme hydrological events: floods and droughts, Environemental issue sreport no. 21Rep., European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe France 1976 4.1 Reduced hydropower production Due to insufficient precipitation in 1975 the large dams (used for hydropower production) were filled only significantly below their normal volume. Already in February 1976 measures had to been taken to use mainly thermoelectric power to preserve a minimum water level in the reservoirs. During the drought of 1976 due the impaired power production of both hydropower plants as well as thermic and nuclear power plants (because of high stream water temperatures and low flow) a energy supply shortage situation developed in France (deficit of about 15 billion KWH) and had to be compensatedby using abandoned thermic power plants and imports of energy from abroad (in particular from Spain and Italy). Despite this , the French Electricity Board had to reduce the distribution voltage by 5%. EEA (2001), Sustainable water use in Europe, Part 3: Extreme hydrological events: floods and droughts, Environemental issue sreport no. 21Rep., European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe France 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) At some streams an increased fish mortality was observed. Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections At some streams an increased fish mortality was observed. Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) At some streams the lower dilution capacity of streamflows led to increased pollution levels. High temperatures and algal bloom. At some streams where an increased fish mortality was observed the organoleptic water characteristics had been obviously affected. Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) At some streams the lower dilution capacity of streamflows led to increased pollution levels. High temperatures and algal bloom. At some streams where an increased fish mortality was observed the organoleptic water characteristics had been obviously affected. Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality At some streams the lower dilution capacity of streamflows led to increased pollution levels. High temperatures and algal bloom. At some streams where an increased fish mortality was observed the organoleptic water characteristics had been obviously affected. Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 5.1 Impaired navigability of streams (reduction of load, increased need of interim storage of goods at ports) Les transports fluviaux subirent des perturbations pendant tout l'été soit par suite de trop faibles tirants d'eau, imposant des limitations dans le chargement des péniches, soit en raison de la fermeture de certains canaux (en particulier dans le Centre ou en Bretagne) dont le maintien en eau entrait en compétition avec d'autres besoins (industrie, approvisionnement urbain) jugés plus prioritaires. Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 15.2 Regional/local user conflicts According to a representative of the ministry inspectors had to be sent out to the streams in the Saar basin trying to prevent that the upstream farmers retain water to the disadvantages of the farmers downstream . Saarland; Rheinland-Pfalz; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1.8 other According to a representative of the ministry inspectors had to be sent out to the streams in the Saar basin trying to prevent that the upstream farmers retain water to the disadvantages of the farmers downstream . Saarland; Rheinland-Pfalz; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses The county of Nordrhein-Westfalen declared a one-year debt moratorium on farmers' agricultural debt and interest as a drought relief measure. Nordrhein-Westfalen; EIR – Executive Intelligence Review (1976): “European Livestock Herds Slaughtered As Continent-Wide Drought Continues” (International Market Newsletter Section). EIR 3(29), July-20-1976. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Polska 1976 1.6 Forced reduction of stock(early selling/slaughtering) Poland whose farmers normally produce nearly as many potatoes as all of Western Europe combined seems to be particularly hard hit. Poland's potato crop is used as feed for pigs which are processed and shipped primarily to the U.S.A. and West Germany and represent a major source of Western currency. The slaughter of Polish pig stocks has been intense in recent weeks and there will be substantial losses of foreign exchange because of reduced herds if the reports which forecast continued drought are correct. EIR – Executive Intelligence Review (1976): “European Livestock Herds Slaughtered As Continent-Wide Drought Continues” (International Market Newsletter Section). EIR 3(29), July-20-1976. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Polska 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Poland whose farmers normally produce nearly as many potatoes as all of Western Europe combined seems to be particularly hard hit. Poland's potato crop is used as feed for pigs which are processed and shipped primarily to the U.S.A. and West Germany and represent a major source of Western currency. The slaughter of Polish pig stocks has been intense in recent weeks and there will be substantial losses of foreign exchange because of reduced herds if the reports which forecast continued drought are correct. EIR – Executive Intelligence Review (1976): “European Livestock Herds Slaughtered As Continent-Wide Drought Continues” (International Market Newsletter Section). EIR 3(29), July-20-1976. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 4.1 Reduced hydropower production The London Financial Times estimated the drought damage for France alone at $5 to $6 billion in foreign trade balance-of-payments aid to farmers and lost hydro-electric power. EIR – Executive Intelligence Review (1976): “European Livestock Herds Slaughtered As Continent-Wide Drought Continues” (International Market Newsletter Section). EIR 3(29), July-20-1976. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe France 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) In France limitations in water supply affected urban and rural areas in particular in the East, in Brittany and in touristic areas at the West coast yet were less severe than expected at the beginning of the summer (Brochet, 1977) Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) In France limitations in water supply affected urban and rural areas in particular in the East, in Brittany and in touristic areas at the West coast yet were less severe than expected at the beginning of the summer (Brochet, 1977) Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In France limitations in water supply affected urban and rural areas in particular in the East, in Brittany and in touristic areas at the West coast yet were less severe than expected at the beginning of the summer (Brochet, 1977) Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In France limitations in water supply affected urban and rural areas in particular in the East, in Brittany and in touristic areas at the West coast yet were less severe than expected at the beginning of the summer (Brochet, 1977) Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.1 Increased burned area Devastating wildfires were widespread in the summer of 1976 in regions in Northern France (three fold area burnt compared to a reference year). Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe Sverige 1976 5.1 Impaired navigability of streams (reduction of load, increased need of interim storage of goods at ports) Tourists were forced to abandon sight-seeing boats along Sweden's Goeta Canal because of low water levels. Sverige; Östra Mellansverige; Östergötlands län; Beaver County Times - Jul 7, 1976, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe 1976 1976 1.3 Reduced productivity of permanent crop cultivation Maize yields reduced by 50% according to the agrometeorlogical bulletin Slovenija; Slovenija; Jugovzhodna Slovenija; Koroška; Notranjsko-kraška; Podravska; Pomurska; Savinjska; Spodnjeposavska; Zasavska; AUA - Agricultural University of Athens (2011): Archive of local/regional/national drought periods and impacts based on historical records. Deliverable WP4/4.1, DMCSEE (Drought Managmente Centre for South East Europe) Project.
1975-76 Europe 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Maize yields reduced by 50% according to the agrometeorlogical bulletin Slovenija; Slovenija; Jugovzhodna Slovenija; Koroška; Notranjsko-kraška; Podravska; Pomurska; Savinjska; Spodnjeposavska; Zasavska; AUA - Agricultural University of Athens (2011): Archive of local/regional/national drought periods and impacts based on historical records. Deliverable WP4/4.1, DMCSEE (Drought Managmente Centre for South East Europe) Project.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 14.5 other The farmers were no longer able to deliver fresh vegetables to the markets in the bigger cities, due to crop failures. Ouest; Bretagne; Hans Courvoisier, F. M., Bernard Primault (1977). La sécheresse de 1976 et ses conséquences - Die Dürre 1976 und ihre Auswirkungen. Zürich, Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt (MZA).
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock The farmers needed to expand the pastures for their livestock. The grass grew too little to be enough fodder. Hans Courvoisier, F. M., Bernard Primault (1977). La sécheresse de 1976 et ses conséquences - Die Dürre 1976 und ihre Auswirkungen. Zürich, Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt (MZA).
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Reduced productivity in potatoes cultivation. The plants were smaller than usual, due to the drought. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Ostschweiz; Thurgau; Hans Courvoisier, F. M., Bernard Primault (1977). La sécheresse de 1976 et ses conséquences - Die Dürre 1976 und ihre Auswirkungen. Zürich, Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt (MZA).
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 2.5 Increased dieback of trees (please specify tree species in the description field!) Birch trees died, due to a lack of water. Beeches and Viburnum were also negatively affected by the drought. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Espace Mittelland; Jura; Hans Courvoisier, F. M., Bernard Primault (1977). La sécheresse de 1976 et ses conséquences - Die Dürre 1976 und ihre Auswirkungen. Zürich, Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt (MZA).
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Birch trees died, due to a lack of water. Beeches and Viburnum were also negatively affected by the drought. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Espace Mittelland; Jura; Hans Courvoisier, F. M., Bernard Primault (1977). La sécheresse de 1976 et ses conséquences - Die Dürre 1976 und ihre Auswirkungen. Zürich, Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt (MZA).
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 1.3 Reduced productivity of permanent crop cultivation The pastures are described as red during this region. And crop failure such as low and weak plants were documented. The tobacco plants only grew 25-30 cm and the corn plants not higher than 85 cm. The corn its half empty. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Espace Mittelland; Jura; Hans Courvoisier, F. M., Bernard Primault (1977). La sécheresse de 1976 et ses conséquences - Die Dürre 1976 und ihre Auswirkungen. Zürich, Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt (MZA).
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 1.2 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation, losses > 30% (EU compensation treshold) The pastures are described as red during this region. And crop failure such as low and weak plants were documented. The tobacco plants only grew 25-30 cm and the corn plants not higher than 85 cm. The corn its half empty. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Espace Mittelland; Jura; Hans Courvoisier, F. M., Bernard Primault (1977). La sécheresse de 1976 et ses conséquences - Die Dürre 1976 und ihre Auswirkungen. Zürich, Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt (MZA).
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. The pastures are described as red during this region. And crop failure such as low and weak plants were documented. The tobacco plants only grew 25-30 cm and the corn plants not higher than 85 cm. The corn its half empty. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Espace Mittelland; Jura; Hans Courvoisier, F. M., Bernard Primault (1977). La sécheresse de 1976 et ses conséquences - Die Dürre 1976 und ihre Auswirkungen. Zürich, Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt (MZA).
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. The wheat gets yellow to early and dries out. Bassin Parisien; Île De France; Centre; Île de France; Eure-et-Loir; Loiret; Loir-et-Cher; Essonne; Yvelines; Cher; Hans Courvoisier, F. M., Bernard Primault (1977). La sécheresse de 1976 et ses conséquences - Die Dürre 1976 und ihre Auswirkungen. Zürich, Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt (MZA).
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. The farmers were no longer able to deliver fresh vegetables to the markets in the bigger cities, due to crop failures. Ouest; Bretagne; Hans Courvoisier, F. M., Bernard Primault (1977). La sécheresse de 1976 et ses conséquences - Die Dürre 1976 und ihre Auswirkungen. Zürich, Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt (MZA).
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.6 Forced reduction of stock(early selling/slaughtering) Livestock needed to be slaughtered, due to the drought and a lack of water and fodder. Hans Courvoisier, F. M., Bernard Primault (1977). La sécheresse de 1976 et ses conséquences - Die Dürre 1976 und ihre Auswirkungen. Zürich, Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt (MZA).
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 15.3 other Due to the drought of 1976 conflicts at all levels are reported for the Netherlands: international water allocation conflicts, regional/local user conflicts, other (drought-induced) conflicts. But they were considered as impacts of relatively low importance. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 15.2 Regional/local user conflicts Due to the drought of 1976 conflicts at all levels are reported for the Netherlands: international water allocation conflicts, regional/local user conflicts, other (drought-induced) conflicts. But they were considered as impacts of relatively low importance. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 15.1 Water allocation conflicts - international Due to the drought of 1976 conflicts at all levels are reported for the Netherlands: international water allocation conflicts, regional/local user conflicts, other (drought-induced) conflicts. But they were considered as impacts of relatively low importance. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 11.3 Structural damages on infrastructures due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Structural damage to private property and on infrastructures due to soil subsidence are reported impacts of the 1976 drought event in the Netherlands. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Structural damage to private property and on infrastructures due to soil subsidence are reported impacts of the 1976 drought event in the Netherlands. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.7 Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) Impacts of the 1976 drought event on freshwater ecosystems in the Netherlands: Increased mortality of aquatic species (frogs and fish, NULL, NULL); Drying up of perennial stream sections and the Deterioration of wetlands are considered as being important impacts, while Increased mortality of aquatic endangered/protected species; Increased species concentration near water; Migration and concentration; Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species; Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species and wetland species; Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) were less abundant/significant. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.6 Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) species of wetlands Impacts of the 1976 drought event on freshwater ecosystems in the Netherlands: Increased mortality of aquatic species (frogs and fish, NULL, NULL); Drying up of perennial stream sections and the Deterioration of wetlands are considered as being important impacts, while Increased mortality of aquatic endangered/protected species; Increased species concentration near water; Migration and concentration; Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species; Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species and wetland species; Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) were less abundant/significant. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.5 Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species Impacts of the 1976 drought event on freshwater ecosystems in the Netherlands: Increased mortality of aquatic species (frogs and fish, NULL, NULL); Drying up of perennial stream sections and the Deterioration of wetlands are considered as being important impacts, while Increased mortality of aquatic endangered/protected species; Increased species concentration near water; Migration and concentration; Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species; Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species and wetland species; Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) were less abundant/significant. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.4 Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species Impacts of the 1976 drought event on freshwater ecosystems in the Netherlands: Increased mortality of aquatic species (frogs and fish, NULL, NULL); Drying up of perennial stream sections and the Deterioration of wetlands are considered as being important impacts, while Increased mortality of aquatic endangered/protected species; Increased species concentration near water; Migration and concentration; Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species; Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species and wetland species; Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) were less abundant/significant. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.3 Migration and concentration (loss of wildlife in some areas and too many in others) Impacts of the 1976 drought event on freshwater ecosystems in the Netherlands: Increased mortality of aquatic species (frogs and fish, NULL, NULL); Drying up of perennial stream sections and the Deterioration of wetlands are considered as being important impacts, while Increased mortality of aquatic endangered/protected species; Increased species concentration near water; Migration and concentration; Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species; Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species and wetland species; Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) were less abundant/significant. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.2 Increased species concentration near water Impacts of the 1976 drought event on freshwater ecosystems in the Netherlands: Increased mortality of aquatic species (frogs and fish, NULL, NULL); Drying up of perennial stream sections and the Deterioration of wetlands are considered as being important impacts, while Increased mortality of aquatic endangered/protected species; Increased species concentration near water; Migration and concentration; Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species; Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species and wetland species; Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) were less abundant/significant. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.12 (Mid-/Long-term) deterioration of wetlands Impacts of the 1976 drought event on freshwater ecosystems in the Netherlands: Increased mortality of aquatic species (frogs and fish, NULL, NULL); Drying up of perennial stream sections and the Deterioration of wetlands are considered as being important impacts, while Increased mortality of aquatic endangered/protected species; Increased species concentration near water; Migration and concentration; Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species; Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species and wetland species; Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) were less abundant/significant. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Impacts of the 1976 drought event on freshwater ecosystems in the Netherlands: Increased mortality of aquatic species (frogs and fish, NULL, NULL); Drying up of perennial stream sections and the Deterioration of wetlands are considered as being important impacts, while Increased mortality of aquatic endangered/protected species; Increased species concentration near water; Migration and concentration; Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species; Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species and wetland species; Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) were less abundant/significant. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Impacts of the 1976 drought event on freshwater ecosystems in the Netherlands: Increased mortality of aquatic species (frogs and fish, NULL, NULL); Drying up of perennial stream sections and the Deterioration of wetlands are considered as being important impacts, while Increased mortality of aquatic endangered/protected species; Increased species concentration near water; Migration and concentration; Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species; Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species and wetland species; Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) were less abundant/significant. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Impacts of the 1976 drought event on freshwater ecosystems in the Netherlands: Increased mortality of aquatic species (frogs and fish, NULL, NULL); Drying up of perennial stream sections and the Deterioration of wetlands are considered as being important impacts, while Increased mortality of aquatic endangered/protected species; Increased species concentration near water; Migration and concentration; Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species; Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species and wetland species; Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) were less abundant/significant. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Impacts of the 1976 drought event on freshwater ecosystems in the Netherlands: Increased mortality of aquatic species (frogs and fish, NULL, NULL); Drying up of perennial stream sections and the Deterioration of wetlands are considered as being important impacts, while Increased mortality of aquatic endangered/protected species; Increased species concentration near water; Migration and concentration; Increased populations of invasive (exotic) aquatic species; Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species and wetland species; Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) were less abundant/significant. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Several thousand fish died due to high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.13 Irreversible deterioration/loss of wetlands Lowering of groundwater levels led to eutrophication of oligotrophic areas. The drought led to a decrease in this type of nature. P.K.M. van der Heijde, "De droogte van 1976", TNO, Den Haag 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.12 (Mid-/Long-term) deterioration of wetlands Lowering of groundwater levels led to eutrophication of oligotrophic areas. The drought led to a decrease in this type of nature. P.K.M. van der Heijde, "De droogte van 1976", TNO, Den Haag 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 3.2 Reduced aquaculture production (please specify fish species in the description field) Reduced production from freshwater fishery and aquaculture are documented impacts of the 1976 drought event in Netherlands but were considered of rather marginal importance. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 3.1 Reduced (freshwater) fishery production (please specify fish species in the description field) Reduced production from freshwater fishery and aquaculture are documented impacts of the 1976 drought event in Netherlands but were considered of rather marginal importance. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) 3540% of the oxidised nitrogen load was removed in a 6km stretch of the Silk Stream, London. This is probably related to macrophytic & benthal denritrification which were increased at water temperatures of 1618oC. This was associated with the periods of lowest flow when prolonged contact of the water with the benthal sediments occurred. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 2.5 Increased dieback of trees (please specify tree species in the description field!) Impacts of the 1976 drought to the forestry sector in the Netherlands: Reduced tree growth /biomass accumulation; Decrease in timber production; Increase of pest / disease attacks on trees; Increased tree defoliation; Dieback of planted tree seedlings; Reduced wood fuel yields. To a smaller extent also dieback of trees was observed. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 2.6 Increased dieback of planted tree seedlings (in nurseries or afforested area) Impacts of the 1976 drought to the forestry sector in the Netherlands: Reduced tree growth /biomass accumulation; Decrease in timber production; Increase of pest / disease attacks on trees; Increased tree defoliation; Dieback of planted tree seedlings; Reduced wood fuel yields. To a smaller extent also dieback of trees was observed. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 2.7 Damage to short rotation forestry plantations (energy forestry) Impacts of the 1976 drought to the forestry sector in the Netherlands: Reduced tree growth /biomass accumulation; Decrease in timber production; Increase of pest / disease attacks on trees; Increased tree defoliation; Dieback of planted tree seedlings; Reduced wood fuel yields. To a smaller extent also dieback of trees was observed. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 2.3 Increased occurrence of water stress indicators and damage symptoms (e.g. premature ripening, seasoning checks, defoliation, worsened crown conditions etc.) (please specify forest type/tree species in the description field!) Impacts of the 1976 drought to the forestry sector in the Netherlands: Reduced tree growth /biomass accumulation; Decrease in timber production; Increase of pest / disease attacks on trees; Increased tree defoliation; Dieback of planted tree seedlings; Reduced wood fuel yields. To a smaller extent also dieback of trees was observed. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low levels in Pitsford Reservoir augmented by transfers from Grafham. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire) National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Low levels in Pitsford Reservoir augmented by transfers from Grafham. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire) National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) South West Water Authority laid 4km of temporary water main to draw 2Ml/d from the River Torridge to supplement supplies in Melbury Reservoir which was at 20% of capacity. South West Devon Torbay National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) South West Water Authority laid 4km of temporary water main to draw 2Ml/d from the River Torridge to supplement supplies in Melbury Reservoir which was at 20% of capacity. South West Devon Torbay National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) When Melbury was at 8% of capacity, 10km of temporary water main was laid from UpperTamar Lake Reservoir. South West Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Cornwall and Isles of Scilly National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) When Melbury was at 8% of capacity, 10km of temporary water main was laid from UpperTamar Lake Reservoir. South West Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Cornwall and Isles of Scilly National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) When Melbury was at 8% of capacity, 10km of temporary water main was laid from UpperTamar Lake Reservoir. South West Devon Torbay National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) When Melbury was at 8% of capacity, 10km of temporary water main was laid from UpperTamar Lake Reservoir. South West Devon Torbay National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Dried up springs in the South West were augmented by water pumped from a disused quarry at Wilminstone, nr Tavistock. Treated at Kilworthy treatment works. South West Devon Torbay National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Dried up springs in the South West were augmented by water pumped from a disused quarry at Wilminstone, nr Tavistock. Treated at Kilworthy treatment works. South West Devon Torbay National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Low water resources in South Wales for domestic customers led to the use of water from underground sources such as coal mines - treated to a potable standard but had slightly more colour than usual although customers did not mind. Wales West Wales and The Valleys National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.6 other Low water resources in South Wales for domestic customers led to the use of water from underground sources such as coal mines - treated to a potable standard but had slightly more colour than usual although customers did not mind. Wales West Wales and The Valleys National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.3 Migration and concentration (loss of wildlife in some areas and too many in others) Depleted dissolved oxygen in River Wye by increased weed growth and decomposition affected migratory salmon and trout fisheries. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Gloucestershire National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Depleted dissolved oxygen in River Wye by increased weed growth and decomposition affected migratory salmon and trout fisheries. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Gloucestershire National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.3 Migration and concentration (loss of wildlife in some areas and too many in others) Depleted dissolved oxygen in River Wye by increased weed growth and decomposition affected migratory salmon and trout fisheries. Wales East Wales Monmouthshire and Newport;Powys National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Depleted dissolved oxygen in River Wye by increased weed growth and decomposition affected migratory salmon and trout fisheries. Wales East Wales Monmouthshire and Newport;Powys National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections In many rivers, salmon were unable to pass weirs and other obstructions due to low flows - 50 salmon died in lower reaches of the River Severn being unable to ascend the weirs. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) In many rivers, salmon were unable to pass weirs and other obstructions due to low flows - 50 salmon died in lower reaches of the River Severn being unable to ascend the weirs. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.3 Migration and concentration (loss of wildlife in some areas and too many in others) In many rivers, salmon were unable to pass weirs and other obstructions due to low flows - 50 salmon died in lower reaches of the River Severn being unable to ascend the weirs. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections In many rivers, salmon were unable to pass weirs and other obstructions due to low flows - 50 salmon died in lower reaches of the River Severn being unable to ascend the weirs. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) In many rivers, salmon were unable to pass weirs and other obstructions due to low flows - 50 salmon died in lower reaches of the River Severn being unable to ascend the weirs. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.3 Migration and concentration (loss of wildlife in some areas and too many in others) Increased poaching of salmon as fish waited in sea pools for the high flows which never came. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Increased poaching of salmon as fish waited in sea pools for the high flows which never came. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Increased poaching of salmon as fish waited in sea pools for the high flows which never came. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality Several thousand fish died due to high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) Several thousand fish died due to high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Several thousand fish died due to high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) High salinity and effluent concentrations in the Severn at Gloucester caused concern where water is pumped into the Sharpness Canal for transfer to Bristol. Temporary inflatable weir crests were installed to reduce the adverse affect of high tide. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Gloucestershire National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.6 Problems with groundwater quality High salinity and effluent concentrations in the Severn at Gloucester caused concern where water is pumped into the Sharpness Canal for transfer to Bristol. Temporary inflatable weir crests were installed to reduce the adverse affect of high tide. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Gloucestershire National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 2.4 Increase of pest/disease attacks on trees (please specify species in the description field!) Impacts of the 1976 drought to the forestry sector in the Netherlands: Reduced tree growth /biomass accumulation; Decrease in timber production; Increase of pest / disease attacks on trees; Increased tree defoliation; Dieback of planted tree seedlings; Reduced wood fuel yields. To a smaller extent also dieback of trees was observed. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Impacts of the 1976 drought to the forestry sector in the Netherlands: Reduced tree growth /biomass accumulation; Decrease in timber production; Increase of pest / disease attacks on trees; Increased tree defoliation; Dieback of planted tree seedlings; Reduced wood fuel yields. To a smaller extent also dieback of trees was observed. Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 1.6 Forced reduction of stock(early selling/slaughtering) Shortage of feed in livestock farming was one of the major impacts of the 1976 drought in Netherlands (important yet not dramatic impact). Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock Shortage of feed in livestock farming was one of the major impacts of the 1976 drought in Netherlands (important yet not dramatic impact). Massarutto et al. (2013): Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9.
1975-76 Europe Belgique-België 1976 9.14 other In Belgium, several ecological valuable aquatic species temporarily disappeared in 1976 due to desiccation of channels and ponds. EC. 2007. Water Scarcity and Droughts, In-Depth-Assessment, Second Interim Report. European Commission, Brussels.
1975-76 Europe Belgique-België 1976 9.11 Drying up of lakes and reservoirs (which have a habitat function) In Belgium, several ecological valuable aquatic species temporarily disappeared in 1976 due to desiccation of channels and ponds. EC. 2007. Water Scarcity and Droughts, In-Depth-Assessment, Second Interim Report. European Commission, Brussels.
1975-76 Europe Belgique-België 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) In Belgium, several ecological valuable aquatic species temporarily disappeared in 1976 due to desiccation of channels and ponds. EC. 2007. Water Scarcity and Droughts, In-Depth-Assessment, Second Interim Report. European Commission, Brussels.
1975-76 Europe Belgique-België 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections In Belgium, several ecological valuable aquatic species temporarily disappeared in 1976 due to desiccation of channels and ponds. EC. 2007. Water Scarcity and Droughts, In-Depth-Assessment, Second Interim Report. European Commission, Brussels.
1975-76 Europe Belgique-België 1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses The costs incurred due to the drought event 1976 in Belgium were quantified to 21 million € for Agriculture in the summary table of the EC report (numbers provided by member states). These figures are the results of simulations, damages have been estimated taking into account actual water uses ( of 2002). EC. 2007. Water Scarcity and Droughts, In-Depth-Assessment, Second Interim Report. European Commission, Brussels.
1975-76 Europe Belgique-België 1976 4.5 Increased costs/economic losses The costs incurred due to the drought event 1976 in Belgium were quantified to 350 million € for Industry and 5 million € for Energy in the summary table of the EC report (numbers provided by member states). These figures are the results of simulations, damages have been estimated taking into account actual water uses ( of 2002). EC. 2007. Water Scarcity and Droughts, In-Depth-Assessment, Second Interim Report. European Commission, Brussels.
1975-76 Europe Portugal 1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses The costs incurred due to the drought event 1975-76 within the Agricultural sector in Portugal were quantified to 53 million in the summary table of the Ec report (numbers provided by member states). EC. 2007. Water Scarcity and Droughts, In-Depth-Assessment, Second Interim Report. European Commission, Brussels.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 4.2 Impaired production/shut down of thermal/nuclear powerplants (due to a lack of cooling water and/or environmental legislation for discharges into streams) In the 1976 drought, there were 150 hours more load shed than in an average year. In 2003, there were even 650 hours load shed above an average hour. 1994 is most extreme, with 830 hours load shed. D. Klopstra, R. Versteeg and T. Kroon, "Aard, ernst en omvang van watertekorten in Nederland", Droogtestudie, September 2005
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements In 1976 (when flows were the lowest in a 45 year record), the habitat availability was much reduced. Christierson, B. v., J. Hannaford, et al. (2009). Impacts of long droughts on water resources – draft final. Bristol, Environment Agency: 143.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) In 1976 (when flows were the lowest in a 45 year record), the habitat availability was much reduced. Christierson, B. v., J. Hannaford, et al. (2009). Impacts of long droughts on water resources – draft final. Bristol, Environment Agency: 143.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections In 1976 (when flows were the lowest in a 45 year record), the habitat availability was much reduced. Christierson, B. v., J. Hannaford, et al. (2009). Impacts of long droughts on water resources – draft final. Bristol, Environment Agency: 143.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom The excess nutrient load in waterways in mid-Bedfordshire triggered extensive growth of bacteria in fungi, which in turn reduced the dissolved oxygen content (DOC) of river water at the height of the drought. Increasing proportions of sewage effluent led to polluted drought biota emerge in mid-Bedfordshire waterways. East Of England; Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire; Bedfordshire CC; Christierson, B. v., J. Hannaford, et al. (2009). Impacts of long droughts on water resources – draft final. Bristol, Environment Agency: 143.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) The excess nutrient load in waterways in mid-Bedfordshire triggered extensive growth of bacteria in fungi, which in turn reduced the dissolved oxygen content (DOC) of river water at the height of the drought. This same expansion of water-borne microorganisms was further aided by elevated water temperatures of 16-18 °C. East Of England; Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire; Bedfordshire CC; Christierson, B. v., J. Hannaford, et al. (2009). Impacts of long droughts on water resources – draft final. Bristol, Environment Agency: 143.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) The excess nutrient load in waterways in mid-Bedfordshire triggered extensive growth of bacteria in fungi, which in turn reduced the dissolved oxygen content (DOC) of river water at the height of the drought. This same expansion of water-borne microorganisms was further aided by elevated water temperatures of 16-18 °C. East Of England; Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire; Bedfordshire CC; Christierson, B. v., J. Hannaford, et al. (2009). Impacts of long droughts on water resources – draft final. Bristol, Environment Agency: 143.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality The excess nutrient load in waterways in mid-Bedfordshire triggered extensive growth of bacteria in fungi, which in turn reduced the dissolved oxygen content (DOC) of river water at the height of the drought. This same expansion of water-borne microorganisms was further aided by elevated water temperatures of 16-18 °C. East Of England; Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire; Bedfordshire CC; Christierson, B. v., J. Hannaford, et al. (2009). Impacts of long droughts on water resources – draft final. Bristol, Environment Agency: 143.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) Saline incursions occurred due to low river flows, and algal blooms were widespread in many rivers. Christierson, B. v., J. Hannaford, et al. (2009). Impacts of long droughts on water resources – draft final. Bristol, Environment Agency: 143.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Saline incursions occurred due to low river flows, and algal blooms were widespread in many rivers. Christierson, B. v., J. Hannaford, et al. (2009). Impacts of long droughts on water resources – draft final. Bristol, Environment Agency: 143.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Water rationing became necessary in Jersey. MARSH, T. and M. LEES (1985). THE 1984 DROUGHT. Wallingford.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Rota cuts were also introduced in parts of Belfast Northern Ireland; Northern Ireland; Belfast; MARSH, T. and M. LEES (1985). THE 1984 DROUGHT. Wallingford.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) A maximum of 21 million consumers were affected by water use restrictions. Marsh, T. J., R. A. Monkhouse, et al. (1994). THE 1988-92 DROUGHT. I. o. Hydrology. Wallingford.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses Agricultural impact was significant in 1976: cereals, grassland and many arable crops were adversely affected with much reduced yields. MARSH, T. and M. LEES (1985). THE 1984 DROUGHT. Wallingford.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Agricultural impact was significant in 1976: cereals, grassland and many arable crops were adversely affected with much reduced yields. MARSH, T. and M. LEES (1985). THE 1984 DROUGHT. Wallingford.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Standpipes were brought into use for 80000 people in north Devon. South West; Devon; Devon CC; MARSH, T. and M. LEES (1985). THE 1984 DROUGHT. Wallingford.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Standpipes were brought into use for 80000 people in north Devon. South West; Devon; Devon CC; MARSH, T. and M. LEES (1985). THE 1984 DROUGHT. Wallingford.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Rota cuts of up to 17 hours a day affected one million people in south-eastern Wales Wales; MARSH, T. and M. LEES (1985). THE 1984 DROUGHT. Wallingford.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Rota cuts of up to 17 hours a day affected one million people in south-eastern Wales Wales; MARSH, T. and M. LEES (1985). THE 1984 DROUGHT. Wallingford.
1975-76 Europe Portugal 1976 4.5 Increased costs/economic losses The costs incurred due to the drought event 1975-76 within the Energy sector in Portugal were quantified to 147 million in the summary table of the EC report (numbers provided by member states). EC. 2007. Water Scarcity and Droughts, In-Depth-Assessment, Second Interim Report. European Commission, Brussels.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.5 Reduced plant growth The exceptionally severe drought during the spring and summer of 1976 resulted in almost 40 % bare ground on chalk grasslands compared with 5 % in normal summers. Several species (e.g. the Festuca type, Plantago lanceolata and Hieracium pilosella) had significantly lower covers on chalk grasslands in 1976 than in normal summers. South East; Surrey, East and West Sussex; West Sussex; Hopkins, B. (1978). "The effects of the 1976 drought on chalk grassland in Sussex, England." Biological Conservation 14(1): 1-12.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.2 Changes in species biology/ecology The exceptionally severe drought during the spring and summer of 1976 resulted in almost 40 % bare ground on chalk grasslands compared with 5 % in normal summers. Several species (e.g. the Festuca type, Plantago lanceolata and Hieracium pilosella) had significantly lower covers on chalk grasslands in 1976 than in normal summers. South East; Surrey, East and West Sussex; West Sussex; Hopkins, B. (1978). "The effects of the 1976 drought on chalk grassland in Sussex, England." Biological Conservation 14(1): 1-12.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires By 2003 (date of the underlying report) 1976 has been the year with the highest number of registered wild fires in Brandenburg (1300 fires. Brandenburg; DWD -die agrarmeteorologische Situation - Klimastatusbereicht 2003
1975-76 Europe Norge 1976 1976 12.1 Increased burned area Several forest fires in southern Norway. Biggest single fire about 100 ha. Norge; Agder og Rogaland; Aftenposten 1976-07-12, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Norge 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires Several forest fires in southern Norway. Biggest single fire about 100 ha. Norge; Agder og Rogaland; Aftenposten 1976-07-12, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Norge 1976 1976 12.1 Increased burned area 400 ha productive forest burnt down in Heddal, Notodden. The total area affected was much larger. Norge; Sør-Østlandet; Telemark; Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap etter oppdrag fra Justis- og politidepartementet. 2008. Skogbrannberedskap og håndtering av den senere tids skogbranner i Norge. Http://Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Norge 1976 1976 12.1 Increased burned area 800 ha productive forest burnt down in Starmoen, Elverum. The total area affected by the fire was much larger Norge; Hedmark og Oppland; Hedmark; Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap etter oppdrag fra Justis- og politidepartementet. 2008. Skogbrannberedskap og håndtering av den senere tids skogbranner i Norge. Http://Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Danmark 1976 8/1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Grain harvest 15% below normal Danmark; The Lewiston Daily Sun - Dec 20, 1976, Europe's paying now for summer Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 1976 5.4 Increased costs/economic losses The top five of years with most economic loss for the shipping industry (due to drought): 1921 885 million euros 1949 677 million euros 1947 513 million euros 1959 458 million euros 1976 417 million euros D. Klopstra, R. Versteeg and T. Kroon, "Aard, ernst en omvang van watertekorten in Nederland", Droogtestudie, September 2005
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) South-West Water Authority Regional water supplies failed during the drought and water had to be rationed. Wales; South West; East Wales; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Devon; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Devon CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) South-West Water Authority Regional water supplies failed during the drought and water had to be rationed. Wales; South West; East Wales; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Devon; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Devon CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 A campaign was mounted to reduce industrial and recreational consumption and efforts were made to publicise the crisis to holiday makers in the Isle of Wight which doubles its population in the summer. By these measures and a reduction in water pressure, a 25% cut in consumption was achieved during the summer. Some emergency measures were taken consisting mainly of installation of pumping equipment to utilise borehole resources fully and to transfer water. Tankers were also used to transfer water. Occasional failures in supply occurred in the highest areas due to the decreased water pressure. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Isle of Wight Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Ireland 1976 The demants of the previous summer (1975) had reduced the water storage in reservoirs and aquifers below the normal levels and the winter rainfall was inadequate to restore them sufficientky to meet the 1976 demand. Ireland; S.S.O Laoghog, 01/79, Dublin, International Memorandum, "The Dry Period October 1974 to August 1976"
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) South-West Water Authority Regional water supplies failed during the drought and water had to be rationed. Wales; South West; East Wales; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Devon; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Devon CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Northampton sewage treatment works received 40% less flows in 1976 than 1975 due to industrial and domestic water saving, this in combination with high temperatures caused problems of septicity at underloaded works. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire) Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 The habitat most severely affected by the drought was the heathland of south, southwest and southeast England especially in areas subject to excessive public pressure. Most damage was caused by accidental fires and of the 110 nature conservation sites affected by fire, 58 were heathlands or peatlands. South West Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) South-West Water Authority Regional water supplies failed during the drought and water had to be rationed. Wales; South West; East Wales; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Devon; Cornwall and Isles of Scilly; Devon CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe Danmark 1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock Denmark expected its 1.2 mill dairy cattle, which gave half the normal amount of milk during the drought, will need $350 mill worth of imported fodder. Danmark; Lewiston Morning Tribune - Dec 20, 1976, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Danmark 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) Denmark expected its 1.2 mill dairy cattle, which gave half the normal amount of milk during the drought, will need $350 mill worth of imported fodder. Danmark; Lewiston Morning Tribune - Dec 20, 1976, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 4.4 other In the 1976 drought, there were 150 hours more load shed than in an average year. In 2003, there were even 650 hours load shed above an average hour. 1994 is most extreme, with 830 hours load shed. D. Klopstra, R. Versteeg and T. Kroon, "Aard, ernst en omvang van watertekorten in Nederland", Droogtestudie, September 2005
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.14 other Lowering of groundwater levels led to eutrophication of oligotrophic areas. The drought led to a decrease in this type of nature. P.K.M. van der Heijde, "De droogte van 1976", TNO, Den Haag 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.12 (Mid-/Long-term) deterioration of wetlands Lowering of groundwater levels led to eutrophication of oligotrophic areas. The drought led to a decrease in this type of nature. P.K.M. van der Heijde, "De droogte van 1976", TNO, Den Haag 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 5.4 Increased costs/economic losses For example the important economic transportation route between Rotterdam and Ruhr the navigable depth was not sufficient. P.K.M. van der Heijde, "De droogte van 1976", TNO, Den Haag 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 5.2 Stream closed for navigation For example the important economic transportation route between Rotterdam and Ruhr the navigable depth was not sufficient. P.K.M. van der Heijde, "De droogte van 1976", TNO, Den Haag 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 5.1 Impaired navigability of streams (reduction of load, increased need of interim storage of goods at ports) For example the important economic transportation route between Rotterdam and Ruhr the navigable depth was not sufficient. P.K.M. van der Heijde, "De droogte van 1976", TNO, Den Haag 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 1.3 Reduced productivity of permanent crop cultivation 20-30% yield loss in polder areas and 40-50% yield loss in the sandy soils due to a lack of available water. P.K.M. van der Heijde, "De droogte van 1976", TNO, Den Haag 1978
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. 20-30% yield loss in polder areas and 40-50% yield loss in the sandy soils due to a lack of available water. P.K.M. van der Heijde, "De droogte van 1976", TNO, Den Haag 1978
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.2 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation, losses > 30% (EU compensation treshold) There were severe drought impacts in dairy herds, milk yields. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) There were severe drought impacts in dairy herds, milk yields. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 14.5 other Replacing plants and shrubs in private gardens during the drought led to a loss of garden produce and therefore the cost of substituting it with fresh food had risen in price because of the drought. Obviously the sum of these costs varied widely across the country, but probably they amounted to between 23 € and 35 € for the average household. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.5 Increased costs/economic losses Soil subsidence resulted in cracking of building in many cases. It was reported that 40,000 buildings, mostly in London and the South East likely damaged by subsidence resulting in insurance payments of about £ 60 million. Taking uninsured damages into account, it was estimated that the cost of these drought related phenomenon would be in the region of £ 100 million. London; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.3 Structural damages on infrastructures due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Soil subsidence resulted in cracking of building in many cases. It was reported that 40,000 buildings, mostly in London and the South East likely damaged by subsidence resulting in insurance payments of about £ 60 million. Taking uninsured damages into account, it was estimated that the cost of these drought related phenomenon would be in the region of £ 100 million. London; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Soil subsidence resulted in cracking of building in many cases. It was reported that 40,000 buildings, mostly in London and the South East likely damaged by subsidence resulting in insurance payments of about £ 60 million. Taking uninsured damages into account, it was estimated that the cost of these drought related phenomenon would be in the region of £ 100 million. London; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.3 Structural damages on infrastructures due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Foundations, particularly on clays, were damaged because of shrinkage taking place. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Foundations, particularly on clays, were damaged because of shrinkage taking place. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.3 Structural damages on infrastructures due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Roads, buildings and other structures were damaged due to movement of foundations and shrinkage of timber. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage Roads, buildings and other structures were damaged due to movement of foundations and shrinkage of timber. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 10.1 Increased species mortality (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned) In Dorset, Surrey, Suffolk and the Midlands, areas of heather (Erica cinerea) died from lack of moisture and scorching. East Midlands; West Midlands; East Of England; South East; South West; Surrey, East and West Sussex; Dorset and Somerset; Surrey; Dorset CC; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 10.1 Increased contact of wild animals under stress (shortage/lack of feed and water) with humans/human settlements In Dorset, Surrey, Suffolk and the Midlands, areas of heather (Erica cinerea) died from lack of moisture and scorching. East Midlands; West Midlands; East Of England; South East; South West; Surrey, East and West Sussex; Dorset and Somerset; Surrey; Dorset CC; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.5 Reduced plant growth Several plant species, mostly on Chalk and limestone grasslands faced reductions in numbers, growth and flowering. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.1 Increased species mortality (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned) Several plant species, mostly on Chalk and limestone grasslands faced reductions in numbers, growth and flowering. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.1 Increased contact of wild animals under stress (shortage/lack of feed and water) with humans/human settlements Several plant species, mostly on Chalk and limestone grasslands faced reductions in numbers, growth and flowering. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 12.5 Increased costs/economic losses Fire losses in the areas of Forestry Commissions during the summer of 1976 were the largest since 1945 with 2000 hectares being destroyed in England and Wales, causing losses of around 1000000 £. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 12.1 Increased burned area Fire losses in the areas of Forestry Commissions during the summer of 1976 were the largest since 1945 with 2000 hectares being destroyed in England and Wales, causing losses of around 1000000 £. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.8 other Several sheep on open moorland died due to the lack of water from drinking saline water. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock Several sheep on open moorland died due to the lack of water from drinking saline water. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) Several sheep on open moorland died due to the lack of water from drinking saline water. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.8 other Beef cattle gained less weight, lambs took longer to fatten and pigs suffered from heatstroke and numbers died. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) Beef cattle gained less weight, lambs took longer to fatten and pigs suffered from heatstroke and numbers died. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock Livestock feed had to be heavily supplemented with concentrates, hay and straw were used to supplement the sparse grazing and although animals were very fit during the hot weather, many lost weight. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) Livestock feed had to be heavily supplemented with concentrates, hay and straw were used to supplement the sparse grazing and although animals were very fit during the hot weather, many lost weight. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Salad vegetable production dropped sharply. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Soft fruit yields were about 80% of normal. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Diminishing spring flows - Temporary floating water treatment plants were developed and installed in Bridport abstracting from River Brit (alternative source). Used until late 1976. South West Dorset and Somerset Dorset CC The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Diminishing spring flows - Temporary floating water treatment plants were developed and installed in Bridport abstracting from River Brit (alternative source). Used until late 1976. South West Dorset and Somerset Dorset CC The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Yields of main root and fodder crops, like sugar beet, swedes, turnips and mangolds decreased due to the drought. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses In 1976, the main potato crop was severely affected by the drought, leading to lower yields than in 1975 and increased prices for potatoes as well. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. In 1976, the main potato crop was severely affected by the drought, leading to lower yields than in 1975 and increased prices for potatoes as well. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Harvest began in Mid July (the earliest on record). The total cereal crop in 1976 was about 0.5 million tonnes less than in 1975. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.8 other Harvest began in Mid July (the earliest on record). Most of the barley yields had a poor quality and yields were the lowest since 1968. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Harvest began in Mid July (the earliest on record). Most of the barley yields had a poor quality and yields were the lowest since 1968. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Harvest began in Mid July (the earliest on record). Yields of wheat were below average and the worst since 1961. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) The consequential damage and loss for agricultural production arising from the consecutive drought years 1975 and 1976 is reflected in the index of agricultural net product at constant price. This index fell to 89 in 1976 after values of 114 and 100 in the years 1974 and 1975. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.2 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation, losses > 30% (EU compensation treshold) The consequential damage and loss for agricultural production arising from the consecutive drought years 1975 and 1976 is reflected in the index of agricultural net product at constant price. This index fell to 89 in 1976 after values of 114 and 100 in the years 1974 and 1975. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. The consequential damage and loss for agricultural production arising from the consecutive drought years 1975 and 1976 is reflected in the index of agricultural net product at constant price. This index fell to 89 in 1976 after values of 114 and 100 in the years 1974 and 1975. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) Industrial consumers were worst hit in South Wales where a certain amount of output was lost. Wales; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) There have been restrictions for domestic water supplies in many parts of the country. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) There have been restrictions for domestic water supplies in many parts of the country. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) In North Devon and south east Wales there have been considerable problems for domestic water users leading to inconveniences and distortion of the normal pattern of life. Wales; South West; Devon; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) In North Devon and south east Wales there have been considerable problems for domestic water users leading to inconveniences and distortion of the normal pattern of life. Wales; South West; Devon; Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements The drought effects on salmon and migratory trout was severe with catches being much reduced by comparison with 1975. Salmon were forced to wait until autumn for the rains to lift water levels in many rivers, making it possible for them to ascend to their spawning grounds. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.14 other The drought effects on salmon and migratory trout was severe with catches being much reduced by comparison with 1975. Salmon were forced to wait until autumn for the rains to lift water levels in many rivers, making it possible for them to ascend to their spawning grounds. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Direct financial implications of the drought in 1975-1976 in England were 18,134 Pounds for the additional revenue requirement. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Direct financial implications of the drought in 1975-1976 in England were 9,583,000 Pounds loss of income. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Direct financial implications of the drought in 1975-1976 in England were 8,551 Pounds for additional revenue expenditure. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Direct financial implications of the drought in 1975-1976 in England were 16,177,000 Pounds for additional capital expenditure. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Among all Water Authorities in England the loss of income was £ 34.3 million in the financial year 1976/77 as a consequence to measurements towards drought related impacts on water management. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Supplies of unmetered (mostly domestic) water in the South West were reduced to 86 % of the predicted demand, due to initiated campaigns. South West; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Supplies of unmetered (mostly domestic) water in the South West were reduced to 86 % of the predicted demand, due to initiated campaigns. South West; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.4 (Temporary) impairment of chemical status of surface waters (according to EU Water Framework Directive) Due to low flows, a high load of benthic sediments and increased temperature, the quality of the Silk Stream was negatively affected, enabling denitrification, formation of algae and increased bacterial densities like E. coli. London; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.3 (Temporary) impairment of ecological status of surface waters (according to EU Water Framework Directive) Due to low flows, a high load of benthic sediments and increased temperature, the quality of the Silk Stream was negatively affected, enabling denitrification, formation of algae and increased bacterial densities like E. coli. London; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 9.11 Drying up of lakes and reservoirs (which have a habitat function) The Ouse Washes dried out leading to salt water incursion. East Of England; East Anglia; Norfolk; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) The Ouse Washes dried out leading to salt water incursion. East Of England; East Anglia; Norfolk; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections The Ouse Washes dried out leading to salt water incursion. East Of England; East Anglia; Norfolk; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.7 Increased salinity of groundwater The Ouse Washes dried out leading to salt water incursion. East Of England; East Anglia; Norfolk; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Due to low flows, a high load of benthic sediments and increased temperature, the quality of the Silk Stream was negatively affected, enabling denitrification, formation of algae and increased bacterial densities like E. coli. London; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) Due to low flows, a high load of benthic sediments and increased temperature, the quality of the Silk Stream was negatively affected, enabling denitrification, formation of algae and increased bacterial densities like E. coli. London; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality Due to low flows, a high load of benthic sediments and increased temperature, the quality of the Silk Stream was negatively affected, enabling denitrification, formation of algae and increased bacterial densities like E. coli. London; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 12.1 Increased burned area England and Wales suffered much greater increases in the fire hazard than did Scotland where the area lost due to wildfires increased only from 105 ha (1975/76) to 391.5 ha (1976/77) in Scotland. Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires The numerical increase in fires between the summers 1974 and 1976 was greatest in the region arcing from Lancashire through the south Midlands and back to south Wales including much of South West England. In Somerset 1976 there were 30 times more fires then in 1974. South West; Dorset and Somerset; Somerset; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Regional water supplies failed during the drought and water had to be rationed. Wales; East Wales; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Regional water supplies failed during the drought and water had to be rationed. Wales; East Wales; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Reservoirs of surface water in the area of the Southern Water Authorities were in danger of being depleted. South East; Surrey, East and West Sussex; West Sussex; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.11 Problems with water quality for use in industrial production processes There were increased concentrations of non-biodegradable materials (e.g. chlorides) threatening several industrial users. Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 4.4 other A textile firm faced the drying up of its private water reservoir. North West; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 4.4 other Several private abstractors faced an increased possibility of their reservoirs drying up completely. Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) Two coal mines works had to comply with imposed regulations, reducing its intake of treated water by 50%. Wales; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) Ebbw Vale steel works had to comply with imposed regulations, reducing its intake of treated water by 50%. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Gwent Valleys; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.6 other Operating problems occurred due to lower reservoir levels and intakes being too high. North West; Cumbria; West Cumbria; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Operating problems occurred due to lower reservoir levels and intakes being too high. North West; Cumbria; West Cumbria; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) The small Gwyrne Fawr reservoir supplying Abertillery stored less than 20 % of its capacity in mid-July. Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Gwent Valleys; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.6 other In the 4 small Charnwood reservoirs only 31 % of capacity was stored. The remaining water storages were saved by the Authority as a final reserve. East Midlands; Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire; Leicester; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In the 4 small Charnwood reservoirs only 31 % of capacity was stored. The remaining water storages were saved by the Authority as a final reserve. East Midlands; Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire; Leicester; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In the 4 small Charnwood reservoirs only 31 % of capacity was stored. The remaining water storages were saved by the Authority as a final reserve. East Midlands; Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire; Leicester; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In the South West Authority, Melbury reservoir only stored 8 % of its capacity. South West; Devon; Devon CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) The Welsh National Water Authority (WNWDA) faced a reduction of regional water supplies of 25 % compared to the average from 1961 to 1974. This was the highest decrease among all British Regional Water Authorities and Regional Councils. Starting on 23rd August almost 1 million people in south east Wales only received water through their tabs from 07.00 to 14.00 hours as a consequence to the threat of supplies being depleted. Wales; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) The Welsh National Water Authority (WNWDA) faced a reduction of regional water supplies of 25 % compared to the average from 1961 to 1974. This was the highest decrease among all British Regional Water Authorities and Regional Councils. Starting on 23rd August almost 1 million people in south east Wales only received water through their tabs from 07.00 to 14.00 hours as a consequence to the threat of supplies being depleted. Wales; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) The Welsh National Water Authority (WNWDA) faced a reduction of regional water supplies of 25 % compared to the average from 1961 to 1974. This was the highest decrease among all British Regional Water Authorities and Regional Councils. Starting on 23rd August almost 1 million people in south east Wales only received water through their tabs from 07.00 to 14.00 hours as a consequence to the threat of supplies being depleted. Wales; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) The Welsh National Water Authority (WNWDA) faced a reduction of regional water supplies of 25 % compared to the average from 1961 to 1974. This was the highest decrease among all British Regional Water Authorities and Regional Councils. Starting on 23rd August almost 1 million people in south east Wales only received water through their tabs from 07.00 to 14.00 hours as a consequence to the threat of supplies being depleted. Wales; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 2.4 Increase of pest/disease attacks on trees (please specify species in the description field!) Woodlands all over England were affected by the drought and resulting soil water deficits. Many trees, particularly beeches (genus Fagus) suffered from increased incidence of diseases like the Dutch Elm. Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 2.3 Increased occurrence of water stress indicators and damage symptoms (e.g. premature ripening, seasoning checks, defoliation, worsened crown conditions etc.) (please specify forest type/tree species in the description field!) Woodlands all over England were affected by the drought and resulting soil water deficits. Many trees, particularly beeches (genus Fagus) suffered from increased incidence of diseases like the Dutch Elm. Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.5 Reduced plant growth Low water tables affected reed growth. East Of England; East Anglia; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Open water ecosystems as well as wet meadow habitats faced severe drought impacts like nutrient enrichment and de-oxygenation of lakes and ponds. Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.1 Drought-related erosion processes (loss of soil fertility) Rapid drying of limestone and chalk areas affected local grassland habitats, resulting in extensive tracts of brown grassland. This, as well as other factors like trampling and grazing, caused increased erosion processes. South East; South West; Kent; Dorset and Somerset; Kent CC; Somerset; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.6 (Mid-/Long-term) deterioration of habitats Rapid drying of limestone and chalk areas affected local grassland habitats, resulting in extensive tracts of brown grassland. This, as well as other factors like trampling and grazing, caused increased erosion processes. South East; South West; Kent; Dorset and Somerset; Kent CC; Somerset; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 12.3 Increased severity of wildfires In many Nature Reserves and Sites of Special Scientific Interest heathlands and peatlands were more frequently affected by severe wildfires destroying not only vegetation but also underlying humus and peat layers. South West; South East; Wales; Dorset and Somerset; Surrey, East and West Sussex; East Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Dorset CC; Surrey; Gwent Valleys; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires In many Nature Reserves and Sites of Special Scientific Interest heathlands and peatlands were more frequently affected by severe wildfires destroying not only vegetation but also underlying humus and peat layers. South West; South East; Wales; Dorset and Somerset; Surrey, East and West Sussex; East Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Dorset CC; Surrey; Gwent Valleys; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality 3540% of the oxidised nitrogen load was removed in a 6km stretch of the Silk Stream, London. This is probably related to macrophytic & benthal denritrification which were increased at water temperatures of 1618oC. This was associated with the periods of lowest flow when prolonged contact of the water with the benthal sediments occurred. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) 3540% of the oxidised nitrogen load was removed in a 6km stretch of the Silk Stream, London. This is probably related to macrophytic & benthal denritrification which were increased at water temperatures of 1618oC. This was associated with the periods of lowest flow when prolonged contact of the water with the benthal sediments occurred. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) 3540% of the oxidised nitrogen load was removed in a 6km stretch of the Silk Stream, London. This is probably related to macrophytic & benthal denritrification which were increased at water temperatures of 1618oC. This was associated with the periods of lowest flow when prolonged contact of the water with the benthal sediments occurred. London Outer London Outer London - West and North West Ellis J.B. 1980 'The drought hydrobiology of an urban stream' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 12.1 Increased burned area In many Nature Reserves and Sites of Special Scientific Interest heathlands and peatlands were more frequently affected by severe wildfires destroying not only vegetation but also underlying humus and peat layers. South West; South East; Wales; Dorset and Somerset; Surrey, East and West Sussex; East Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Dorset CC; Surrey; Gwent Valleys; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.4 other In many Nature Reserves and Sites of Special Scientific Interest heathlands and peatlands were more frequently affected by severe wildfires destroying not only vegetation but also underlying humus and peat layers. South West; South East; Wales; Dorset and Somerset; Surrey, East and West Sussex; East Wales; West Wales and The Valleys; Dorset CC; Surrey; Gwent Valleys; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.3 Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) Grassland habitats were noticeably affected due to the rapid drying out of limestone and chalk areas. Trampling and heavy grazing caused the removal of the fine grass sward that was often replaced by new coarser species. The degeneration of the grass cover resulted in increased erosion, especially along footpaths - Wye and Crundale, Kent. South East Kent Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.7 Irreversible deterioration/loss of habitats Grassland habitats were noticeably affected due to the rapid drying out of limestone and chalk areas. Trampling and heavy grazing caused the removal of the fine grass sward that was often replaced by new coarser species. The degeneration of the grass cover resulted in increased erosion, especially along footpaths - Wye and Crundale, Kent. South East Kent Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.3 Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) Grassland habitats were noticeably affected due to the rapid drying out of limestone and chalk areas. Trampling and heavy grazing caused the removal of the fine grass sward that was often replaced by new coarser species. The degeneration of the grass cover resulted in increased erosion, especially along footpaths - Cheddar Gorge, Somerset. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.7 Irreversible deterioration/loss of habitats Grassland habitats were noticeably affected due to the rapid drying out of limestone and chalk areas. Trampling and heavy grazing caused the removal of the fine grass sward that was often replaced by new coarser species. The degeneration of the grass cover resulted in increased erosion, especially along footpaths - Cheddar Gorge, Somerset. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.5 Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species At Tring Reservoirs, Buckinghamshire, reeds were trampled due to excessive public use of these open water areas. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Buckinghamshire CC Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.11 Drying up of lakes and reservoirs (which have a habitat function) At Tring Reservoirs, Buckinghamshire, reeds were trampled due to excessive public use of these open water areas. South East Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Buckinghamshire CC Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.5 Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) riparian species At Esthwaite, Cumbria, reeds were trampled due to excessive public use of these open water areas. North West Cumbria West Cumbria Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.11 Drying up of lakes and reservoirs (which have a habitat function) At Esthwaite, Cumbria, reeds were trampled due to excessive public use of these open water areas. North West Cumbria West Cumbria Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.12 (Mid-/Long-term) deterioration of wetlands Serious long term damage arose from the draining, ploughing and reseeding of areas normally considered too wet to be improved. Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.13 Irreversible deterioration/loss of wetlands Serious long term damage arose from the draining, ploughing and reseeding of areas normally considered too wet to be improved. Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Fires in some dune sites destroyed the scrub vegetation thus increasing public access and recreational problems in areas that were previously inaccessible. Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Naila suffered from water supply shortages Bayern; Oberfranken; Hof, Landkreis; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 11.4 other Due to the drought conditions in summer 1976 soil water deficit reached harmful levels affecting vegetation in Cannock Chase as a tourism region. West Midlands; Shropshire and Staffordshire; Staffordshire CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 10.11 other Due to the drought conditions in summer 1976 soil water deficit reached harmful levels affecting vegetation in Cannock Chase as a tourism region. West Midlands; Shropshire and Staffordshire; Staffordshire CC; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) Rotacuts in SW Wales reduced labour availability, particularly female labour, which in turn had a definite but unquantifiable effect on production, especially continuous process industry. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 4.4 other Rotacuts in SW Wales reduced labour availability, particularly female labour, which in turn had a definite but unquantifiable effect on production, especially continuous process industry. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Some quality deterioration became apparent. The increased concentration of nonbiodegradable materials such as chlorides was of concern to several industrial users in the Severn Trent Water Authority area. Wales Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.11 Problems with water quality for use in industrial production processes Some quality deterioration became apparent. The increased concentration of nonbiodegradable materials such as chlorides was of concern to several industrial users in the Severn Trent Water Authority area. Wales Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Some quality deterioration became apparent. The increased concentration of nonbiodegradable materials such as chlorides was of concern to several industrial users in the Severn Trent Water Authority area. West Midlands Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.11 Problems with water quality for use in industrial production processes Some quality deterioration became apparent. The increased concentration of nonbiodegradable materials such as chlorides was of concern to several industrial users in the Severn Trent Water Authority area. West Midlands Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Some quality deterioration became apparent. The increased concentration of nonbiodegradable materials such as chlorides was of concern to several industrial users in the Severn Trent Water Authority area. East Midlands Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.11 Problems with water quality for use in industrial production processes Some quality deterioration became apparent. The increased concentration of nonbiodegradable materials such as chlorides was of concern to several industrial users in the Severn Trent Water Authority area. East Midlands Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Some quality deterioration became apparent. The increased concentration of nonbiodegradable materials such as chlorides was of concern to several industrial users in the Severn Trent Water Authority area. Yorkshire and The Humber Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.11 Problems with water quality for use in industrial production processes Some quality deterioration became apparent. The increased concentration of nonbiodegradable materials such as chlorides was of concern to several industrial users in the Severn Trent Water Authority area. Yorkshire and The Humber Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Some quality deterioration became apparent. The increased concentration of nonbiodegradable materials such as chlorides was of concern to several industrial users in the Severn Trent Water Authority area. South West Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.11 Problems with water quality for use in industrial production processes Some quality deterioration became apparent. The increased concentration of nonbiodegradable materials such as chlorides was of concern to several industrial users in the Severn Trent Water Authority area. South West Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires Due to the low rainfall during summer 1976 in the North York Moors, the surface peat dried up locally and over 60 fires occurred, the main ones burning approximately 750 hectares on Rosdale Moor, Wheeldale Moor and Glaisdale Moor. Fallow peatlands were exposed to erosion by rainfall and surface runoff afterwards. Yorkshire and The Humber; North Yorkshire; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 12.1 Increased burned area Due to the low rainfall during summer 1976 in the North York Moors, the surface peat dried up locally and over 60 fires occurred, the main ones burning approximately 750 hectares on Rosdale Moor, Wheeldale Moor and Glaisdale Moor. Fallow peatlands were exposed to erosion by rainfall and surface runoff afterwards. Yorkshire and The Humber; North Yorkshire; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 11.4 other Due to the low rainfall during summer 1976 in the North York Moors, the surface peat dried up locally and over 60 fires occurred, the main ones burning approximately 750 hectares on Rosdale Moor, Wheeldale Moor and Glaisdale Moor. Fallow peatlands were exposed to erosion by rainfall and surface runoff afterwards. Yorkshire and The Humber; North Yorkshire; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 11.1 Drought-related erosion processes (loss of soil fertility) Due to the low rainfall during summer 1976 in the North York Moors, the surface peat dried up locally and over 60 fires occurred, the main ones burning approximately 750 hectares on Rosdale Moor, Wheeldale Moor and Glaisdale Moor. Fallow peatlands were exposed to erosion by rainfall and surface runoff afterwards. Yorkshire and The Humber; North Yorkshire; Doornkamp, J. C., K. J. Gregory, et al. (1980). Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) The lower reaches of several rivers were suffering from high levels of salinity while in others high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations caused fish kills. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections The lower reaches of several rivers were suffering from high levels of salinity while in others high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations caused fish kills. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Increased mortality of aquatic species. Sud-Ouest Aquitaine Dordogne Reference Link
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Increased mortality of aquatic species. Sud-Ouest Aquitaine Dordogne Reference Link
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections High fish mortality in several streams Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) High fish mortality in several streams Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Algal boom in severals streams Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 7.6 other in some case of firefight lack of water Ouest Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-35
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 7.6 other in some case of firefight lack of water Sud-Ouest Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-36
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) local water supply problems. In urbans aera water supply problems Ouest Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-32
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) carefully dealing with drink water in urban and rural aeras Est Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) carefully dealing with drink water in urban and rural aeras Ouest Bretagne Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) carefully dealing with drink water in tourists aeras Ouest Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) carefully dealing with drink water in tourists aeras Sud-Ouest Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) local water supply problems. In urbans aera water supply problems Ouest Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-32
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) carefully dealing with drink water in urban and rural aeras Est Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) carefully dealing with drink water in urban and rural aeras Ouest Bretagne Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) carefully dealing with drink water in tourists aeras Ouest Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) carefully dealing with drink water in tourists aeras Sud-Ouest Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 6.5 other carefully dealing with drink water in tourists aeras Ouest Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 6.5 other carefully dealing with drink water in tourists aeras Sud-Ouest Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 5.2 Stream closed for navigation Several canals closed for navigation because the water is prioritery used for industry, or supplying water to urban aeras Bassin Parisien Centre Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 5.2 Stream closed for navigation Several canals closed for navigation because the water is prioritery used for industry, or supplying water to urban aeras Ouest Bretagne Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 5.1 Impaired navigability of streams (reduction of load, increased need of interim storage of goods at ports) Reduced fluvial transport because of low water level and reduction of load of canal boats Bassin Parisien Centre Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 5.1 Impaired navigability of streams (reduction of load, increased need of interim storage of goods at ports) impaired navigability of streams Ouest Pays de la Loire Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-30
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 5.1 Impaired navigability of streams (reduction of load, increased need of interim storage of goods at ports) impaired navigability of streams Ouest Bretagne Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-31
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 5.1 Impaired navigability of streams (reduction of load, increased need of interim storage of goods at ports) Reduced fluvial transport because of low water level and reduction of load of canal boats Ouest Bretagne Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 5.1 Impaired navigability of streams (reduction of load, increased need of interim storage of goods at ports) Canal boat on ground. Not enough water to navigate. Ecoomic loss of the drought of 1976 was estimated at about 100 billion French Francs. Sud-Ouest Aquitaine Gironde Reference Link (accessed: Sep 2014)
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) Restriction of industrial production process due to lack of process water. EDF can´t use watermills anymore (not enough water). Ecoomic loss of the drought of 1976 was estimated at about 100 billion French Francs. Reference Link (accessed: Sep 2014)
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 4.4 other Restriction of industrial production process due to lack of process water. EDF can´t use watermills anymore (not enough water). Ecoomic loss of the drought of 1976 was estimated at about 100 billion French Francs. Reference Link (accessed: Sep 2014)
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) Restriction / disruption of industrial production process Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-30
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 4.2 Impaired production/shut down of thermal/nuclear powerplants (due to a lack of cooling water and/or environmental legislation for discharges into streams) impaired production of thermal and nuclear plants due to a lack of cooling water: deficit of 12 bio (Milliarden) KWH Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) The lower reaches of several rivers were suffering from high levels of salinity while in others high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations caused fish kills. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.4 (Temporary) impairment of chemical status of surface waters (according to EU Water Framework Directive) The lower reaches of several rivers were suffering from high levels of salinity while in others high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations caused fish kills. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 4.1 Reduced hydropower production reduced hydropower production Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 3.2 Reduced aquaculture production (please specify fish species in the description field) Reduced aquaculture production, water temperature to high. Ecoomic loss of the drought of 1976 was estimated at about 100 billion French Francs. Sud-Ouest Reference Link (accessed: Sep 2014)
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Bassin Parisien Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1979
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Bassin Parisien Centre Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1982
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Est Lorraine Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1980
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Est Franche Comté Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1981
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Ouest Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1978
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.2 Decrease in annual non-timber products from forest trees (e.g. cork, pine nuts, etc) (please specify which kind of product) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Bassin Parisien Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1979
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.2 Decrease in annual non-timber products from forest trees (e.g. cork, pine nuts, etc) (please specify which kind of product) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Bassin Parisien Centre Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1982
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.2 Decrease in annual non-timber products from forest trees (e.g. cork, pine nuts, etc) (please specify which kind of product) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Est Lorraine Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1980
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.2 Decrease in annual non-timber products from forest trees (e.g. cork, pine nuts, etc) (please specify which kind of product) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Est Franche Comté Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1981
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.2 Decrease in annual non-timber products from forest trees (e.g. cork, pine nuts, etc) (please specify which kind of product) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Ouest Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1978
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.3 Increased occurrence of water stress indicators and damage symptoms (e.g. premature ripening, seasoning checks, defoliation, worsened crown conditions etc.) (please specify forest type/tree species in the description field!) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Bassin Parisien Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1979
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.3 Increased occurrence of water stress indicators and damage symptoms (e.g. premature ripening, seasoning checks, defoliation, worsened crown conditions etc.) (please specify forest type/tree species in the description field!) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Bassin Parisien Centre Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1982
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.3 Increased occurrence of water stress indicators and damage symptoms (e.g. premature ripening, seasoning checks, defoliation, worsened crown conditions etc.) (please specify forest type/tree species in the description field!) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Est Lorraine Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1980
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.3 Increased occurrence of water stress indicators and damage symptoms (e.g. premature ripening, seasoning checks, defoliation, worsened crown conditions etc.) (please specify forest type/tree species in the description field!) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Est Franche Comté Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1981
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.3 Increased occurrence of water stress indicators and damage symptoms (e.g. premature ripening, seasoning checks, defoliation, worsened crown conditions etc.) (please specify forest type/tree species in the description field!) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Ouest Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1978
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.5 Increased dieback of trees (please specify tree species in the description field!) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Bassin Parisien Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1979
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.5 Increased dieback of trees (please specify tree species in the description field!) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Bassin Parisien Centre Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1982
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.5 Increased dieback of trees (please specify tree species in the description field!) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Est Lorraine Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1980
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.5 Increased dieback of trees (please specify tree species in the description field!) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Est Franche Comté Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1981
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.5 Increased dieback of trees (please specify tree species in the description field!) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Ouest Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1978
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.6 Increased dieback of planted tree seedlings (in nurseries or afforested area) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Bassin Parisien Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1979
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.6 Increased dieback of planted tree seedlings (in nurseries or afforested area) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Bassin Parisien Centre Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1982
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.6 Increased dieback of planted tree seedlings (in nurseries or afforested area) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Est Lorraine Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1980
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.6 Increased dieback of planted tree seedlings (in nurseries or afforested area) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Est Franche Comté Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1981
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 2.6 Increased dieback of planted tree seedlings (in nurseries or afforested area) Young Trees (under one year old) alomst 100% died. Ouest Aussenac; La sécheresse de 1976: Influence des déficits hydriques sur la croissance des arbres forestiers; R.F.F. XXX - 2-1978
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 15.3 other other: Increased costs / economic losses. 1976, the french government decided to setting up an exceptional charge (tax) at about 1,3 billion Euros. The french population pay to indemnise the damaged ones Reference Link (accessed: Sep 2014)
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.3 (Temporary) impairment of ecological status of surface waters (according to EU Water Framework Directive) The lower reaches of several rivers were suffering from high levels of salinity while in others high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations caused fish kills. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) The lower reaches of several rivers were suffering from high levels of salinity while in others high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations caused fish kills. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires increased number of wildfires Ouest Bretagne Ille-et-Vilaine Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-33
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires increased number of wildfires Ouest Bretagne Morbihan Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-34
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires increased number of wildfires Sud-Ouest Aquitaine Landes Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-34
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.1 Increased burned area increased number and severity of wildfires in aeras usually not attempted Bassin Parisien Centre Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.1 Increased burned area increased number and severity of wildfires in aeras usually not attempted Bassin Parisien Normandie Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.1 Increased burned area increased number and severity of wildfires in aeras usually not attempted Ouest Bretagne Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires increased number and severity of wildfires in aeras usually not attempted Bassin Parisien Centre Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires increased number and severity of wildfires in aeras usually not attempted Bassin Parisien Normandie Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.2 Increased number of wildfires increased number and severity of wildfires in aeras usually not attempted Ouest Bretagne Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.3 Increased severity of wildfires increased number and severity of wildfires in aeras usually not attempted Bassin Parisien Centre Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.3 Increased severity of wildfires increased number and severity of wildfires in aeras usually not attempted Bassin Parisien Normandie Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 12.3 Increased severity of wildfires increased number and severity of wildfires in aeras usually not attempted Ouest Bretagne Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock regional shortage of of feed for livestock. Grazing in low altitudes not more possible, so livestock have to go up to the alp Centre-Est Rhône-Alpes Savoie Gardelle Charles, Gardelle Francoise. Sécheresse et inalpage en Savoie. In: Revue de géographie alpine. 1977, Tome 65 No 2.pp 203-207
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock Regional shortage of feed for livestock. Dry wheat fields were abandonned and given as food for livestock. Ecoomic loss of the drought of 1976 was estimated at about 100 billion French Francs. Reference Link (accessed: Sep 2014)
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock Regional shortage of feed for livestock Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality The lower reaches of several rivers were suffering from high levels of salinity while in others high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations caused fish kills. Rodda, J.C. and Marsh, T.J. 2011. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Reduced productivity in all the agriculture and livestock farming sector (zone), losses were estimated between 5.6 to 8 billion French Francs Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-29
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.2 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation, losses > 30% (EU compensation treshold) Reduced productivity in all the agriculture and livestock farming sector (zone), losses were estimated between 5.6 to 8 billion French Francs Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-29
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.5 Reduced productivity of livestock farming (e.g. reduced yields or quality of milk, reduced stock weights) Reduced productivity in all the agriculture and livestock farming sector (zone), losses were estimated between 5.6 to 8 billion French Francs Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-29
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.6 Forced reduction of stock(early selling/slaughtering) Reduced productivity in all the agriculture and livestock farming sector (zone), losses were estimated between 5.6 to 8 billion French Francs Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-29
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.7 Regional shortage of feed/water for livestock Reduced productivity in all the agriculture and livestock farming sector (zone), losses were estimated between 5.6 to 8 billion French Francs Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-29
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses Reduced productivity in all the agriculture and livestock farming sector (zone), losses were estimated between 5.6 to 8 billion French Francs Dorize; Économie et climat en France de 1976 à 1989;Synthèse Sécheresse 1990 numero 1 : 17-29
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Low level of precipitation and high temperatures increases 20 - 30 % less of normal production of mais and beetroot Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.2 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation, losses > 30% (EU compensation treshold) Low level of precipitation and high temperatures increases 20 - 30 % less of normal production of mais and beetroot Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 1.3 Reduced productivity of permanent crop cultivation Low level of precipitation and high temperatures increases 20 - 30 % less of normal production of mais and beetroot Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 14.3 Excess mortality during heat waves The heat wave in 1976 was responsible for 15.4 % exceed deaths in Greater London. London; McGregor, G., M. Pelling, et al. (2007). The social impacts of heat waves. Bristol, Environment Agency.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 14.1 Heat stress problems (if drought is associated with a heatwave) The heat wave in 1976 was responsible for 15.4 % exceed deaths in Greater London. London; McGregor, G., M. Pelling, et al. (2007). The social impacts of heat waves. Bristol, Environment Agency.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 14.3 Excess mortality during heat waves The heat wave in 1976 was responsible for 9.7 % exceed deaths in England and Wales. Yorkshire and The Humber; East Midlands; East Of England; London; North East; North West; South East; South West; Wales; West Midlands; McGregor, G., M. Pelling, et al. (2007). The social impacts of heat waves. Bristol, Environment Agency.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 14.1 Heat stress problems (if drought is associated with a heatwave) The heat wave in 1976 was responsible for 9.7 % exceed deaths in England and Wales. Yorkshire and The Humber; East Midlands; East Of England; London; North East; North West; South East; South West; Wales; West Midlands; McGregor, G., M. Pelling, et al. (2007). The social impacts of heat waves. Bristol, Environment Agency.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Cattle drinking water was polluted by high effluent concentrations in the River Parrett, Somerset. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 The habitat most severely affected by the drought was the heathland of south, southwest and southeast England especially in areas subject to excessive public pressure. Most damage was caused by accidental fires and of the 110 nature conservation sites affected by fire, 58 were heathlands or peatlands. South East Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 11.5 Increased costs/economic losses In France due to the drought in 1976, severe building structure failures occurred, because of soil subsidence. Corti, T., M. Wüest, et al. (2011). "Drought-induced building damages from simulations at regional scale." Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 11(12): 3335-3342.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 11.3 Structural damages on infrastructures due to soil subsidence/shrinkage In France due to the drought in 1976, severe building structure failures occurred, because of soil subsidence. Corti, T., M. Wüest, et al. (2011). "Drought-induced building damages from simulations at regional scale." Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 11(12): 3335-3342.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 1976 11.2 Structural damage to private property due to soil subsidence/shrinkage In France due to the drought in 1976, severe building structure failures occurred, because of soil subsidence. Corti, T., M. Wüest, et al. (2011). "Drought-induced building damages from simulations at regional scale." Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 11(12): 3335-3342.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 The habitat most severely affected by the drought was the heathland of south, southwest and southeast England especially in areas subject to excessive public pressure. Most damage was caused by accidental fires and of the 110 nature conservation sites affected by fire, 58 were heathlands or peatlands. London Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 The fires destroyed the habitat of Dartford Warblers. Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Even in woodlands untouched by fire, moisture stress and scorching affected many trees often causing an increase in the incidence of disease, particularly in beech trees. Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Increases in sewer blockages and smell complaints as stronger sewage and longer retention time led to septic sewage National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1980 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Dendrochronological measurements of spruce-samples proofed, that the summer drought in 1976 had long-lasting negative effects on growing rates of spruces in Bavaria, whereas mixed forests trees were not affected by persistent water stress. Bayern; LWF. 2004. LWF aktuell: Auswirkungen der Trockenheit 2003 – Waldschutzsituation 2004. Bayrische Landesanstalt für Wald und Forstwirtschaft. Freising.
1975-76 Europe España 1976 1977 7.5 Limitations in water supply to households in urban areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) In the drought of the seventies, the deep decrease on water resources available for domestic water supply in Sevilla, which decreased under security levels twice, forced strong restrictions of 11 hours of supply cuts in the worst period and thus consumtion decrease in 16% Sur; Andalucía; Sevilla; Pita López, M. F.(2001). Sequías en la cuenca del Guadalquivir. “Causas y consecuencias de las sequías en España”, Alicante, Instituto Universitario de Geografía de la Universidad de Alicante y Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo, pp. 303-343
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) For avoiding saltwater intrusion in the IJssel during summer, water from the river Waal was redirected into the river Lek. The following higher runoff in the river Lek helped to hold back the salt and stabilized the water balance in the system. The loss of water at the river Waal at Tiel caused a reduction of the channel depth about 25 cm during 5 month. Another possibility to hold back the salt intrusion into the IJssel was closing the flood barrier, which was used three times. In August 1976, salt infiltrated in the IJssel, but with the rising water table of the river Rhine, the problem sorted itself out. Oost-Nederland; Gelderland; Overijssel; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Many birds contracted botulism due to the low water quality. 60,000 cadaver were counted at the Netherlands delta of the river Rhine. The illness demised also to fish. Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Cattle drinking water was polluted by high effluent concentrations in the River Parrett, Somerset. South West Dorset and Somerset Somerset National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 In East Anglia, reed growth was affected by the low watertable. East Of England Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe España 1976 1977 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) In the drought of the seventies, the deep decrease on water resources available for domestic water supply in Sevilla, which decreased under security levels twice, forced strong restrictions of 11 hours of supply cuts in the worst period and thus consumtion decrease in 16% Sur; Andalucía; Sevilla; Pita López, M. F.(2001). Sequías en la cuenca del Guadalquivir. “Causas y consecuencias de las sequías en España”, Alicante, Instituto Universitario de Geografía de la Universidad de Alicante y Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo, pp. 303-343
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Many birds contracted botulism due to the low water quality. 60,000 cadaver were counted at the Netherlands delta of the river Rhine. The illness demised also to fish. Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 10.9 Increased attacks of pests and diseases Many birds contracted botulism due to the low water quality. 60,000 cadaver were counted at the Netherlands delta of the river Rhine. The illness demised also to fish. Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Difficulties with activated sludge plants. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 10.1 Increased species mortality (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned) Many birds contracted botulism due to the low water quality. 60,000 cadaver were counted at the Netherlands delta of the river Rhine. The illness demised also to fish. Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 The habitat most severely affected by the drought was the heathland of south, southwest and southeast England especially in areas subject to excessive public pressure. Most damage was caused by accidental fires and of the 110 nature conservation sites affected by fire, 58 were heathlands or peatlands. South East Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 10.1 Increased contact of wild animals under stress (shortage/lack of feed and water) with humans/human settlements Many birds contracted botulism due to the low water quality. 60,000 cadaver were counted at the Netherlands delta of the river Rhine. The illness demised also to fish. Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Northampton sewage treatment works received 40% less flows in 1976 than 1975 due to industrial and domestic water saving, this increased retention times of sewage at overloaded sewage treatment works. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire) Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 9.9 Drying up of shallow water areas, weed growth or algae bloom Especially in the Rhine tributaries algae bloom occurred due to the high trophic level. This led to dying of fish in the river Moselle. At some rivers and creeks the mortality of fish increased due to drying up of streams caused by the use of water for watering. Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) Water temperatures increased, due to the low water and the use of cooling water in power plants. At the river Rhine 25.2 °C were measured at Lobith (Netherlands). Oost-Nederland; Gelderland; Arnhem/Nijmegen; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality Water temperatures increased, due to the low water and the use of cooling water in power plants. At the river Rhine 25.2 °C were measured at Lobith (Netherlands). Oost-Nederland; Gelderland; Arnhem/Nijmegen; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Wessex Water Authority total per capita demand in 1976 was 110119% of the average for England and Wales. South West Dorset and Somerset;Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Park C.C. 1980 'Water demand' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Northampton sewage treatment works received 40% less flows in 1976 than 1975 due to industrial and domestic water saving, this in combination with high temperatures caused problems of septicity at underloaded works. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire) Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) Water temperatures increased, due to the low water and the use of cooling water in power plants. At the river Rhine 24.7 °C were measured at Rheinfelden (Germany) and 26.7 °C were measured at Worms (Germany) in July. Baden-Württemberg; Rheinland-Pfalz; Freiburg; Rheinhessen-Pfalz; Lörrach; Alzey-Worms; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality Water temperatures increased, due to the low water and the use of cooling water in power plants. At the river Rhine 24.7 °C were measured at Rheinfelden (Germany) and 26.7 °C were measured at Worms (Germany) in July. Baden-Württemberg; Rheinland-Pfalz; Freiburg; Rheinhessen-Pfalz; Lörrach; Alzey-Worms; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) Water temperatures increased, due to the low water and the use of cooling water in power plants. At the river Main 28 °C were measured. Hessen;Baden-Württemberg; Bayern; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 North West Water Authority total per capita demand in 1976 was 110119% of the average for England and Wales. North West Park C.C. 1980 'Water demand' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 The habitat most severely affected by the drought was the heathland of south, southwest and southeast England especially in areas subject to excessive public pressure. Most damage was caused by accidental fires and of the 110 nature conservation sites affected by fire, 58 were heathlands or peatlands. South West Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality Water temperatures increased, due to the low water and the use of cooling water in power plants. At the river Main 28 °C were measured. Hessen;Baden-Württemberg; Bayern; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) Water temperatures increased, due to the low water and the use of cooling water in power plants. At Moselle a maximum of 30 °C was measured. Rheinland-Pfalz; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality Water temperatures increased, due to the low water and the use of cooling water in power plants. At Moselle a maximum of 30 °C was measured. Rheinland-Pfalz; Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 4.2 Impaired production/shut down of thermal/nuclear powerplants (due to a lack of cooling water and/or environmental legislation for discharges into streams) Thermal power plants were reduced due to the low water level and a resulting lack of cooling water. Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 4.1 Reduced hydropower production Hydropower was reduced due to the low water level. The reservoirs in Switzerland were only 67% full. Gerhard, H., Made, J.W.v.d., J. Reiff and Vrees, L.P.M.d., 1983. Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 / La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2 (2. Auflage 1985), KHR/CHR, Lelystad.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Northumbrian Water Authority total per capita demand in 1976 was 110119% of the average for England and Wales. North East Park C.C. 1980 'Water demand' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 1.9 Increased costs/economic losses In Hessen and Rheinland-Pfalz the drought damages in agriculture were more than a billion D-Mark. Hessen; Rheinland-Pfalz; SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Small sewage treatment works did not operate effectively as biological filters dried out. Had to tanker in water to prevent the process from halting. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) More water abstraction leads to several small dried up basins. Bayern; Unterfranken; Oberfranken; Mittelfranken; LfW-Bay, Die Trockenperiode 1976. Eine Hydrologische Monographie und eine Niedrigwasseranalyse, Schriftenreihe Bayrisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft Heft 12, Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, München.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections More water abstraction leads to several small dried up basins. Bayern; Unterfranken; Oberfranken; Mittelfranken; LfW-Bay, Die Trockenperiode 1976. Eine Hydrologische Monographie und eine Niedrigwasseranalyse, Schriftenreihe Bayrisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft Heft 12, Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, München.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Small sewage treatment works did not operate effectively as biological filters dried out. Had to tanker in water to prevent the process from halting. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Even in woodlands untouched by fire, moisture stress and scorching affected many trees often causing an increase in the incidence of disease, Dutch Elm disease spread further north in 1976. Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) Increased temperature and pollution in surface waters especially behind purification plants and industry. Oxygen content usually over 4 mg/l. Bayern; Oberfranken; Mittelfranken; LfW-Bay, Die Trockenperiode 1976. Eine Hydrologische Monographie und eine Niedrigwasseranalyse, Schriftenreihe Bayrisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft Heft 12, Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, München.
1975-76 Europe Ireland 1976 Restrictions on the use of water were introduced. Ireland; S.S.O Laoghog, 01/79, Dublin, International Memorandum, "The Dry Period October 1974 to August 1976"
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Northampton sewage treatment works received 40% less flows in 1976 than 1975 due to industrial and domestic water saving, this increased retention times of sewage at overloaded sewage treatment works. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire) Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Problems with irrigation water quality Increased temperature and pollution in surface waters especially behind purification plants and industry. Oxygen content usually over 4 mg/l. Bayern; Oberfranken; Mittelfranken; LfW-Bay, Die Trockenperiode 1976. Eine Hydrologische Monographie und eine Niedrigwasseranalyse, Schriftenreihe Bayrisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft Heft 12, Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, München.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Increased temperature and pollution in surface waters especially behind purification plants and industry. Reduction of the oxygen content in the river, especially near Kleinostheim and Kahl. Bayern; Unterfranken; LfW-Bay, Die Trockenperiode 1976. Eine Hydrologische Monographie und eine Niedrigwasseranalyse, Schriftenreihe Bayrisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft Heft 12, Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, München.
1975-76 Europe Deutschland 1976 8.1 Increased temperature in surface waters (close to or exceeding critical values) Increased temperature and pollution in surface waters especially behind purification plants and industry. Reduction of the oxygen content in the river, especially near Kleinostheim and Kahl. Bayern; Unterfranken; LfW-Bay, Die Trockenperiode 1976. Eine Hydrologische Monographie und eine Niedrigwasseranalyse, Schriftenreihe Bayrisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft Heft 12, Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, München.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 Increases in sewer blockages and smell complaints as stronger sewage and longer retention time led to septic sewage National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Depleted dissolved oxygen in River Wye by increased weed growth and decomposition affected migratory salmon and trout fisheries. South West Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Gloucestershire National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Depleted dissolved oxygen in River Wye by increased weed growth and decomposition affected migratory salmon and trout fisheries. Wales East Wales Monmouthshire and Newport;Powys National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Reservoir water quality deteriorated - at Pitsford Reservoir air injection/destratification equipment was used to prevent thermal stratification. East Midlands Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire West Northamptonshire (Northampton, Daventry and South Northamptonshire) National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Abstraction at low flows in River Ouse at Bedford resulted in temporary pollution - high and variable ammonia levels caused taste and odour problems. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Bedfordshire CC National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Algal blooms in River Ouse forced a reduction in abstraction for supplies in Bedford. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Bedfordshire CC National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) High concentrations of slowly degradable organic matter on the River Derwent downstream of Derby - oxygenated using a CEGB cooling tower. East Midlands Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire Derby National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Reductions in river flow which were specially authorised under Drought Orders caused deterioration if river water quality and water supplies drawn from rivers. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.2 (Temporary) water quality deterioration/problems of surface waters( natural & manmade), e.g. significant change of physio-chemical indicators, increased concentrations of pollutants, decreased oxygen saturation levels, eutrophication, algal bloom) Additional chemical treatment at the Kings Lynn sewage treatment works to offset reduced dilution due to low flows. East Of England East Anglia Norfolk National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for water companies due to hosepipe and sprinkler bans costing £1,060,000. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for water companies due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £1,044,000. The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Welsh National Water Development Authority due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £900,000. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for South West Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £421,000. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Wessex Water due to hosepipe and sprinkler bans costing £90,000. South West Dorset and Somerset;Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Southern Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £400,000. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex;Hampshire and Isle of Wight;Kent The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Thames Water due to hosepipe and sprinkler bans costing £500,000. South East The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Thames Water due to hosepipe and sprinkler bans costing £500,000. London The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Thames Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £1,350,000. South East The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Thames Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £1,350,000. London The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Anglian Water due to hosepipe and sprinkler bans costing £5,000. East Of England The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Anglian Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £750,000. East Of England The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Anglian Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £750,000. East Of England The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Yorkshire Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £800,000. Yorkshire and The Humber The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Severn Trent Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £2,048,000. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Severn Trent Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £2,048,000. Yorkshire and The Humber The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Severn Trent Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £2,048,000. East Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Severn Trent Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £2,048,000. Wales The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Severn Trent Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £2,048,000. West Midlands The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for Northumbrian Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £60,000. North East The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for North West Water due to hosepipe and sprinkler bans costing £10,000. North West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 7.7 Increased costs/economic losses Loss of income for North West Water due to shortfalls in metered properties costing £750,000. North West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.6 other Private abstractors faced the possibility of their reservoirs drying up completely, a situation faced by at least one textile firm in the North West. Emergency overland pipelines and new wells maintained vital supplies. North West Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.6 other Hilly terrain and severe pressure reductions led to consumers on higher ground being deprived of continuous supply. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.6 other Small water authorities were merged together to make water transfers and management decisions more expedient. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Within the South West Water Authority Div. 2 South water supply was 8891% of the 19611974 average. South West Devon Torbay Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Within the South West Water Authority Div. 2 North water supply was 8891% of the 19611974 average. South West Devon Torbay Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Within the South West Water Authority Div. 3 East water supply was 8891% of the 19611974 average. South West Devon Torbay Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Within the South West Water Authority Div. 3 West water supply was <88% of the 19611974 average. South West Devon Torbay Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in Thames Water Authority area was 9196% of the 19611974 average. South East Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in Thames Water Authority area was 9196% of the 19611974 average. London Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in Anglian Water Authority area was 9196% of the 19611974 average. East Of England Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) Increased salinity in wetlands as a result of drought - Anglian Water Authority prepared a scheme to reverse flows in the River Ouse (RODEO scheme). Anglian Water Authority prepared a scheme to reverse flows in the River Ouse (RODEO scheme). East Of England National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in North West Water Authority area was 9196% of the 19611974 average. North West Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Within the Southern Water Authority West Kent water supply was 9296% of the 19611974 average. South East Kent Kent CC Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 8/1976 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) High tides and low flows on the River Severn led to saline intrusion. South West The Institution of Water Engineers & Scientists and The Institution of Civil Engineers 1977 'Proceedings of the oneday seminar on the operational aspects of the drought of 19751976' Chameleon Press, London.
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Within the Southern Water Authority Folkestone water supply was 9296% of the 19611974 average. South East Kent Kent CC Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) There were problems of large concentrations of chloride in natural supplies of drinking water caused by saline water backing into drainage channels from elevated waterways with open access to the sea. Some deaths of stock due to salt poisoning were reported. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 10/1976 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) As river flows began to diminish, severe saline incursions occurred in the lower reaches of many rivers in Anglia resulting in a large chloride content. Many cattle were poisoned by drinking from rivers, one died - Wash Counter Drain/Old Bedford River and on the Bure Marshes in Norfolk. East Of England East Anglia Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 10/1976 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) As river flows began to diminish, severe saline incursions occurred in the lower reaches of many rivers in Anglia resulting in a large chloride content. Many cattle were poisoned by drinking from rivers, one died - Wash Counter Drain/Old Bedford River and on the Bure Marshes in Norfolk. East Of England East Anglia Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 10/1976 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) As river flows began to diminish, severe saline incursions occurred in the lower reaches of many rivers in Anglia resulting in a large chloride content. Many cattle were poisoned by drinking from rivers, one died - Wash Counter Drain/Old Bedford River and on the Bure Marshes in Norfolk. East Of England East Anglia Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.5 Increased salinity of surface waters (saltwater intrusion and estuarine effects) The Ouse Washes dried out and salt water incursion occurred. East Of England East Anglia Cambridgeshire CC;Norfolk Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Within the Southern Water Authority East Kent water supply was 9296% of the 19611974 average. South East Kent Kent CC Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Within the Southern Water Authority Kent water supply was 8891% of the 19611974 average. South East Kent Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Within the Southern Water Authority Eastbourne water supply was 8891% of the 19611974 average. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex East Sussex CC Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Within the Southern Water Authority Sussex water supply was <88% of the 19611974 average. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex East Sussex CC;West Sussex Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Within the Southern Water Authority Portsmouth water supply was <88% of the 19611974 average. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Portsmouth Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Within the Southern Water Authority the Isle of Wight water supply was <88% of the 19611974 average. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight Isle of Wight Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in Welsh National Water Development Authority area was <88% of the 19611974 average. Wales Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in South West Water Authority area was 8891% of the 19611974 average. South West Cornwall and Isles of Scilly;Devon;Dorset and Somerset Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in Wessex Water Authority area was 8891% of the 19611974 average. South West Dorset and Somerset;Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.7 Increased salinity of groundwater Saline intrusion into boreholes on the south coast and the Isle of Wight. South East Hampshire and Isle of Wight National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in Southern Water Authority area was 8891% of the 19611974 average. South East Surrey, East and West Sussex;Hampshire and Isle of Wight;Kent Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.8 Problems with drinking water quality (e.g., increased treatment, violation of standards) In some water distribution systems there was an increase of bacterial growth leading to taste, odour and dirty water complaints. Chlorinated the water - although at temperatures >25oC the increased growth rate of bacteria made chlorine residuals difficult to maintain. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 8.8 Problems with drinking water quality (e.g., increased treatment, violation of standards) The reduced flushing of water mains led/added to discolouration problems. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in Severn Trent Water Authority area was 8891% of the 19611974 average. South West Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in Severn Trent Water Authority area was 8891% of the 19611974 average. Yorkshire and The Humber Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.1 Drying up of perennial stream sections Several thousand fish died due to high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.1 Increased mortality of aquatic species (specify species (latin term) and state whether a rare/endangered/protected species is concerned in the description field) Several thousand fish died due to high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in Severn Trent Water Authority area was 8891% of the 19611974 average. East Midlands Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in Severn Trent Water Authority area was 8891% of the 19611974 average. West Midlands Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in Severn Trent Water Authority area was 8891% of the 19611974 average. Wales Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.2 Regional/region-wide water supply shortage/problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Water supply in 1976 in Yorkshire Water Authority area was 8891% of the 19611974 average. Yorkshire and The Humber Gardiner V. 1980 'Water supply' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Abstraction at low flows in River Ouse at Bedford resulted in temporary pollution - high and variable ammonia levels caused taste and odour problems. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Bedfordshire CC National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Algal blooms in River Ouse forced a reduction in abstraction for supplies in Bedford. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Bedfordshire CC National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 6.5 other Fires in some dune sites destroyed the scrub vegetation thus increasing public access and recreational problems in areas that were previously inaccessible. Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 6.5 other Reduced commercial salmon catches - 66% of the average catch for previous 5 years. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 6.5 other Low flows meant salmon spawning grounds dried up. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 4.4 other 75 concerns including the Ebbw Vale steel works and two coal mines complied with a request to reduce their intake of treated water by 50%. Wales West Wales and The Valleys Gwent Valleys Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) A substantial number of small businesses were affected by Drought Orders restricting 'nonessential' use of water. Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 4.3 Restriction/disruption of industrial production process (due to a lack of process water and/or environmental legislation/restrictions for discharges into streams) Private abstractors faced the possibility of their reservoirs drying up completely, a situation faced by at least one textile firm in the North West. Emergency overland pipelines and new wells maintained vital supplies. North West Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 10/1976 1.8 other As river flows began to diminish, severe saline incursions occurred in the lower reaches of many rivers in Anglia resulting in a large chloride content. Many cattle were poisoned by drinking from rivers, one died - Wash Counter Drain/Old Bedford River and on the Bure Marshes in Norfolk. East Of England East Anglia Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 10/1976 1.8 other As river flows began to diminish, severe saline incursions occurred in the lower reaches of many rivers in Anglia resulting in a large chloride content. Many cattle were poisoned by drinking from rivers, one died - Wash Counter Drain/Old Bedford River and on the Bure Marshes in Norfolk. East Of England East Anglia Norfolk Davies A.W. 1978 'Pollution problems arising from the 19751976 drought' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,97107
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 1.8 other There were problems of large concentrations of chloride in natural supplies of drinking water caused by saline water backing into drainage channels from elevated waterways with open access to the sea. Some deaths of stock due to salt poisoning were reported. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.8 other In one 200 sow unit out at grass 50 died on a single very hot day in 1976. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. In 1976 all fodder crops (kale, mangolds, turnips & swedes) were very severely affected by the drought. They were sown in dry conditions and made virtually no growth until the rains came at the end of August: mangold production decreased from 70.5/66.0 tonnes per hectare in 1973/1974 to 59.5/54.3 tonnes per hectare in 1975/1976. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. In 1976 all fodder crops (kale, mangolds, turnips & swedes) were very severely affected by the drought. They were sown in dry conditions and made virtually no growth until the rains came at the end of August: turnip and swede production decreased from 50.7/53.0 tonnes per hectare in 1973/1974 to 46.7/33.2 tonnes per hectare in 1975/1976. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. It was difficult to obtain casual workers for glasshouse holdings because of the extreme heat. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. The drought caused a severe reduction in vegetable and fruit supplies, the effects of which could be felt well into 1977 - the shortage of vegetables was widespread through Europe so that prices in this country were high. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. The drought caused a severe reduction in vegetable and fruit supplies, the effects of which could be felt well into 1977 - field vegetables yielded poorly about 75% of normal. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. The drought caused a severe reduction in vegetable and fruit supplies, the effects of which could be felt well into 1977 - soft fruit yielded about 80% of normal. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1977 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. The drought caused a severe reduction in vegetable and fruit supplies, the effects of which could be felt well into 1977 - apples yielded near to the average and the quality good however, they were small in size and subject to cracking. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Potato yields were smaller in 1976 than the years before 1975. Carter E.S 1978 'The effect of the drought on British agriculture' Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 363,4354
1975-76 Europe Polska 1976 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality In the study by Koprowski (2013) a total of 708 cores of Norway spruce were taken from 35 sites throughout north-western and western Poland at sites outside or at the margin of its natural range. The visual assessment and analysis of extreme ring widths revealed the occurrence of narrow rings (reduced radial growth) in the drought years of 1976 and 1992 on all sites. Pólnocno-zachodni; Pólnocny; Poludniowo-zachodni; Kujawsko-Pomorskie; Warminsko-Mazurskie; Pomorskie; Wielkopolskie; Zachodniopomorskie; Lubuskie; Dolnoslaskie; Koprowski, M., 2013. Spatial distribution of introduced Norway spruce growth in lowland Poland: the influence of changing climate and extreme weather events. Quaternary International, 283: 139-146. Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Belgique-België 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Laurent et al (2003) investigated the effects of different thinning intensities on drought response in Norway spruce by means of trees core samples from two experimental even-aged stands of Norway spruce located in the Belgium Ardennes. For the dry stand the calculated growth indices are reduced in 1976, 1984 and 1990 because of lower water supply. In the humid stand, growth indices are reduced in 1976, 1977 and 1995. Given the importance of the lagged climatic effects in the humid stand (showed in the article), the 1977 decrease must have been the consequence of the 1976 drought effect. Overall, according to the article, Laurent et al. (2003) found that at least in the short term, thinning improves the resistance of tree radial growth to drought stresses. However, this effect was more obvious on the humid stand than on the dry stand. Région Wallonne; Prov. Namur; Arr. Philippeville; Laurent, M., Antoine, N., Joël, G., 2003. Effects of different thinning intensities on drought response in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Forest Ecology and Management, 183(1–3): 47-60.Reference Link
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.14 other Private abstractors faced the possibility of their reservoirs drying up completely, a situation faced by at least one textile firm in the North West. Emergency overland pipelines and new wells maintained vital supplies. North West Hussain M.S. 1980 'Industry and commerce' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.3 Migration and concentration (loss of wildlife in some areas and too many in others) Many fish were transferred from low flow reaches to reaches with higher flows. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.6 Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) species of wetlands The fires destroyed the habitat of Dartford Warblers. Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.6 Observation of adverse impacts on populations of rare/endangered (protected) species of wetlands The fires depleted the reptile population. Sargent P. 1980 'Amenity restrictions' in Doorkamp J.C., Gregory K.J. & Burn A.S. 1980 Atlas of Drought in Britain 19751976' Institute of British Geographers, London
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.7 Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) Low flows meant salmon spawning grounds dried up. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.7 Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) Reduced commercial salmon catches - 66% of the average catch for previous 5 years. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.7 Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) Rod salmon catches 47% of the average from the previous 5 years. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.7 Loss of biodiversity (decrease in species diversity) Rod salmon catches 47% of the average from the previous 5 years. National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Additional chemical treatment at the Kings Lynn sewage treatment works to offset reduced dilution due to low flows. East Of England East Anglia Norfolk National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe United Kingdom 1976 1976 9.8 Danger for or actual violation of minimum flow or environmental flow requirements Abstraction at low flows in River Ouse at Bedford resulted in temporary pollution - high and variable ammonia levels caused taste and odour problems. East Of England Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Bedfordshire CC National Water Council 1977 'The 19751976 drought'
1975-76 Europe Belgique-België 1976 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Laurent et al (2003) investigated the effects of different thinning intensities on drought response in Norway spruce by means of trees core samples from two experimental even-aged stands of Norway spruce located in the Belgium Ardennes. For the dry stand the calculated growth indices are reduced in 1976, 1984 and 1990 because of lower water supply. Overall, according to the article, Laurent et al. (2003) found that at least in the short term, thinning improves the resistance of tree radial growth to drought stresses. However, this effect was more obvious on the humid stand than on the dry stand. Région Wallonne; Prov. Namur; Arr. Dinant; Laurent, M., Antoine, N., Joël, G., 2003. Effects of different thinning intensities on drought response in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Forest Ecology and Management, 183(1–3): 47-60.Reference Link
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.12 (Mid-/Long-term) deterioration of wetlands Van Dam studied the long-term acidification process of three originally oligotrophic moorland pools in the Netherlands and the contribution of extreme droughts, particularly the one of 1976, the last extreme drought prior to the study. At the moorland pool 'Gerritsfles' the water levels reached such a low level in consequence of the drought of 1976 that about 50% of the bottom became exposed to the atmosphere. That according to the findings of Van Dam exacerbated the effects of acidic deposition, because of oxidation of atmosphere-derived sulphur, which bas been stored in the sediments. Consequently the acidity of the water rapidly increased, then decreased more slowly, presumably by alkalinity production during the reduction of sulphate and denitrification of nitrate. (In contrast at an investigated moorland pool where only a minor fraction of the bottom was exposed to the atmosphere in extremely dry years the rate of long-term decrease of pH is similar to that found in the North American and Scandinavian lakes.) Oost-Nederland; Gelderland; Veluwe; Van Dam, H. (1988), Acidification of three moorland pools in The Netherlands by acid precipitation and extreme drought periods over seven decades, Freshwater Biology, 20(2), 157-176.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.14 other Van Dam studied the long-term acidification process of three originally oligotrophic moorland pools in the Netherlands and the contribution of extreme droughts, particularly the one of 1976, the last extreme drought prior to the study. At the moorland pool 'Gerritsfles' the water levels reached such a low level in consequence of the drought of 1976 that about 50% of the bottom became exposed to the atmosphere. That according to the findings of Van Dam exacerbated the effects of acidic deposition, because of oxidation of atmosphere-derived sulphur, which bas been stored in the sediments. Consequently the acidity of the water rapidly increased, then decreased more slowly, presumably by alkalinity production during the reduction of sulphate and denitrification of nitrate. (In contrast at an investigated moorland pool where only a minor fraction of the bottom was exposed to the atmosphere in extremely dry years the rate of long-term decrease of pH is similar to that found in the North American and Scandinavian lakes.) Oost-Nederland; Gelderland; Veluwe; Van Dam, H. (1988), Acidification of three moorland pools in The Netherlands by acid precipitation and extreme drought periods over seven decades, Freshwater Biology, 20(2), 157-176.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.12 (Mid-/Long-term) deterioration of wetlands Van Dam studied the long-term acidification process of three originally oligotrophic moorland pools in the Netherlands and the contribution of extreme droughts, particularly the one of 1976, the last extreme drought prior to the study. At the moorland pool 'Achterste Goorven' the water levels reached such a low level in consequence of the drought of 1976 that about 70% of the bottom became exposed to the atmosphere. That according to the findings of Van Dam exacerbated the effects of acidic deposition, because of oxidation of atmosphere-derived sulphur, which bas been stored in the sediments. Consequently the acidity of the water rapidly increased, then decreased more slowly, presumably by alkalinity production during the reduction of sulphate and DE nitrification of nitrate. (In contrast at an investigated moorland pool where only a minor fraction of the bottom was exposed to the atmosphere in extremely dry years the rate of long-term decrease of pH is similar to that found in the North American and Scandinavian lakes.) Zuid-Nederland; Noord-Brabant; Midden-Noord-Brabant; Van Dam, H. (1988), Acidification of three moorland pools in The Netherlands by acid precipitation and extreme drought periods over seven decades, Freshwater Biology, 20(2), 157-176.
1975-76 Europe Nederland 1976 9.14 other Van Dam studied the long-term acidification process of three originally oligotrophic moorland pools in the Netherlands and the contribution of extreme droughts, particularly the one of 1976, the last extreme drought prior to the study. At the moorland pool 'Achterste Goorven' the water levels reached such a low level in consequence of the drought of 1976 that about 70% of the bottom became exposed to the atmosphere. That according to the findings of Van Dam exacerbated the effects of acidic deposition, because of oxidation of atmosphere-derived sulphur, which bas been stored in the sediments. Consequently the acidity of the water rapidly increased, then decreased more slowly, presumably by alkalinity production during the reduction of sulphate and DE nitrification of nitrate. (In contrast at an investigated moorland pool where only a minor fraction of the bottom was exposed to the atmosphere in extremely dry years the rate of long-term decrease of pH is similar to that found in the North American and Scandinavian lakes.) Zuid-Nederland; Noord-Brabant; Midden-Noord-Brabant; Van Dam, H. (1988), Acidification of three moorland pools in The Netherlands by acid precipitation and extreme drought periods over seven decades, Freshwater Biology, 20(2), 157-176.
1975-76 Europe Norge 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Heyn (1981) mentions that water supply shortages occurred (even) in Norway in consequence of the drought summer of 1976. No details. Norge; Heyn E. 1981. Wasser ein Problem unserer Zeit. Studienbücher Geographie. Diesterweg: Frankfurt a.M.; Berlin; München. Sauerländer: Aarau, Frankfurt a. M., Salzburg.
1975-76 Europe France 1976 2.1 Reduced tree growth and vitality Bréda et al. (2008) investigated the influence of climate on the radial growth of beech using 15 mature stands of the French Level II Plot Network (European Forest Monitoring), under different climatic and soil conditions. The three most frequent negative pointer years were those characterized by particularly intense and durable droughts: i.e. 1959, 1976, 1989. Bréda, N., and V. Badeau (2008), Forest tree responses to extreme drought and some biotic events: Towards a selection according to hazard tolerance?, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 340(9–10), 651-662.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 10/1976 4.5 Increased costs/economic losses The extremely low streamflow was a major problem for the Swiss hydropower plants. Although Switzerland had built 3 nuclear power plants before, still about 75% of nation power production usually based on hydropower. There was a clear break-in in hydropower production due to the drought in 1976. Although winter drought conditions led to a slightly lower production in early 1976, but mainly the extreme summer drought conditions were responsible for the low annual production. The prolonged drought led to a record low of hydropower potential in summer which used to be season of highest productivity due to the seasonal pattern of glacier melt. Compared to the preceding "wet" summer of 1975 the decrease in production was about 34%. The estimated total production loss due to drought in the whole year of 1976 is 19%. Energy suppliers had to increase the production from thermal power plants (oil driven). Unfortunately the nuclear power plants were not operating during the summer because of revision / maintenance works. The total power export of Switzerland during the summer 1976 was only 5% (compared to 50% in 1975) and in August the energy supply companies were even forced to buy power on the European market, which at that time was very costly because of the drought impacts on power production in the other countries, thus the earning position was derogated. For the hydropower producers the drought impact came to an end with the high rainfalls in autumn, and the reservoir levels at the end of October were at the level of the 1970-1975 average. Further, the hydropower production benefited from the subsequent year of 1976/77, that , like 1975, was very favourable yielding high surpluses and power export rates. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 10/1976 4.1 Reduced hydropower production The extremely low streamflow was a major problem for the Swiss hydropower plants. Although Switzerland had built 3 nuclear power plants before, still about 75% of nation power production usually based on hydropower. There was a clear break-in in hydropower production due to the drought in 1976. Although winter drought conditions led to a slightly lower production in early 1976, but mainly the extreme summer drought conditions were responsible for the low annual production. The prolonged drought led to a record low of hydropower potential in summer which used to be season of highest productivity due to the seasonal pattern of glacier melt. Compared to the preceding "wet" summer of 1975 the decrease in production was about 34%. The estimated total production loss due to drought in the whole year of 1976 is 19%. Energy suppliers had to increase the production from thermal power plants (oil driven). Unfortunately the nuclear power plants were not operating during the summer because of revision / maintenance works. The total power export of Switzerland during the summer 1976 was only 5% (compared to 50% in 1975) and in August the energy supply companies were even forced to buy power on the European market, which at that time was very costly because of the drought impacts on power production in the other countries, thus the earning position was derogated. For the hydropower producers the drought impact came to an end with the high rainfalls in autumn, and the reservoir levels at the end of October were at the level of the 1970-1975 average. Further, the hydropower production benefited from the subsequent year of 1976/77, that , like 1975, was very favourable yielding high surpluses and power export rates. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 7.4 Limitations in water supply to households in rural areas (supply cuts, need to ensure water supply by emergency actions) Overall the drought of 1976 did not seriously challenge public water supply in Switzerland. Already during the dry years 1970 to 1972 many transfer lines between water supply systems had been realized and also reserve capacity had been generally increased. Hence the drought was hardly a problem for most (large) supply systems even though a new record in demand was reached in June 1976 (when no alleviation due to holiday absences and reduced industrial activity was effective like in other drought years peaking later in summer). However, some small communities in remote rural areas which relied on individual springs or with overage deficient systems had serious shortages. Where, like in the western part of Switzerland, the drought was particularly severe such communities had to apply hard water use restrictions and sometimes truck tanks were the only option to ensure the supply of local people. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 7.3 Bans on domestic and public water use (e.g. car washing, watering the lawn/garden, irrigation of sport fields, filling of swimming pools ) Overall the drought of 1976 did not seriously challenge public water supply in Switzerland. Already during the dry years 1970 to 1972 many transfer lines between water supply systems had been realized and also reserve capacity had been generally increased. Hence the drought was hardly a problem for most (large) supply systems even though a new record in demand was reached in June 1976 (when no alleviation due to holiday absences and reduced industrial activity was effective like in other drought years peaking later in summer). However, some small communities in remote rural areas which relied on individual springs or with overage deficient systems had serious shortages. Where, like in the western part of Switzerland, the drought was particularly severe such communities had to apply hard water use restrictions and sometimes truck tanks were the only option to ensure the supply of local people. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 7.1 Local water supply shortage / problems (drying up of springs/wells, reservoirs, streams) Overall the drought of 1976 did not seriously challenge public water supply in Switzerland. Already during the dry years 1970 to 1972 many transfer lines between water supply systems had been realized and also reserve capacity had been generally increased. Hence the drought was hardly a problem for most (large) supply systems even though a new record in demand was reached in June 1976 (when no alleviation due to holiday absences and reduced industrial activity was effective like in other drought years peaking later in summer). However, some small communities in remote rural areas which relied on individual springs or with overage deficient systems had serious shortages. Where, like in the western part of Switzerland, the drought was particularly severe such communities had to apply hard water use restrictions and sometimes truck tanks were the only option to ensure the supply of local people. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 1.3 Reduced productivity of permanent crop cultivation The federal (national) government took the decision that generally only farmers which suffered from yield losses above 25% (reference: mean yields 1973-75, for all crop species cultivated by the farmer) should benefit from compensation payments, farmers with yields losses > 50% (damage class 2) got additional support. According to these criteria in total 15 000 farmers (from highland and lowland/valley regions) across Switzerland were eligible for governmental compensation payments, but they mostly concentrated on the cantons Waadt, Freiburg and Bern. In the winter the government conceded a credit of 85 million Franken for drought compensation of farmers, but it could be used only if the affected cantons themselves also contributed with financial support themselves. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Espace Mittelland; Région Lémanique; Bern; Freiburg; Vaud; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1976 1.1 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation: crop losses, damage to crop quality or crop failure due to dieback, premature ripening, drought-induced pest infestations or diseases etc. Horticulture suffered in particular from the drought in June and July and increasing populations of pest which benefitted from the dry weather conditions. The shortage in fresh vegetables led to temporary supply problems, but were followed by a very good harvest of autumn cultures. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 1977 1.2 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation, losses > 30% (EU compensation treshold) Potatoes yields, and especially for the early species were significantly reduced due the drought in 1976 across Switzerland. Besides the low yields the potatoes were of very small size, thus the minimum size of table potatoes was exceptionally reduced for the relief of the farmers. Particularly severely affected were seed potatoes due to higher damage by vine fretter being also an indirect consequence of the drought conditions in 1976. Due to the drought losses there was a lack of seed potatoes for 1977, which could not be covered by imports from other European countries, because prices were increased to five-fold values because of the drought. Thus the farmers were forced to use low quality seeds which then led to exceptional low yields in the seed potatoes production and the need for huge imports of seeds in 1977. Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Espace Mittelland; Nordwestschweiz; Ostschweiz; Ticino; Zentralschweiz; Zürich; Ticino; Région Lémanique; Bern; Freiburg; Jura; Neuchâtel; Solothurn; Aargau; Basel-landschaft; Graubünden; Schaffhausen; Thurgau; Ticino; Zürich; Vaud; Valais; Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. und ihre Folgen für Natur und Wirtschaft. Geographica Bernensia G 40, Bern.
1975-76 Europe Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera 1976 6/1976 1.2 Reduced productivity of annual crop cultivation, losses > 30% (EU compensation treshold) According to the data from the Schweizerische Bauernsekretariat the hay yields in 1947 of the cantons Vaud, Freiburg, Bern, Basel land, Schaffhausen, St. Gallen and Graubünden were considerably lower than the mean of the period 1971-1980, deviations ranging from -6% (Bern and Freiburg) to -28% (Schaffhausen). Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera; Espace Mittelland; Nordwestschweiz; Région Lémanique; Ostschweiz; Bern; Freiburg; Basel-landschaft; Vaud; Schaffhausen; St. Gallen; Graubünden; Schorer (1992): Heu- und Emderträge in der Schweiz 1976 (source: Schweizerisches Bauernsekretariat 1986) included in : Schorer, M. (1992) Extreme Trockensommer in der Schweiz im 20. Jh. Page 147

References

Research Publications

  1. Brochet P 1977: La secheresse 1976 en France: aspects climatologiques et consequences. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 22:3, 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/02626667709491733.
  2. Courvoisier H, Maeder F, Primault B 1977: La sécheresse de 1976 et ses conséquences - Die Dürre 1976 und ihre Auswirkungen, Arbeitsberichte der Schweizerischen Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt 73. Schweizerische Meteorologische Zentralanstalt, Zürich.
  3. Dornkamp JC, Gregory KJ, Burn AS (eds) 1980: Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76. Institute of British Geographers, London.
  4. Gerhard H, van der Made W, Reiff J, de Vrees LPM 1983: Die Trocken- und Niedrigwasserperiode 1976 - La sécheresse et les basses eaux de 1976, KHR/CHR-bericht I-2. Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR), Lelystad.
  5. Gibbs JN, Greig BJW 1977: Some Consequences of the 1975–1976 Drought for Dutch Elm Disease in Southern England. Forestry 50:145-154.
  6. Hearn KA, Gilbert MG 1977: The effects of the 1976 drought on sites of nature conservation interest in England and Wales. Nature Conservancy Council.
  7. Massarutto A et al. 2013: Analysis of historic events in terms of socio-economi and environmental impacts. Drought R & SPI Technical report No. 9. www.eu-drought.org/newsevents/10827830/DROUGHT-R-SPI-Technical-Report-No-9-Analysis-of-historic-events-in-terms-of-socio-economic-and-environmental-impacts
  8. Rodda JC, Marsh TJ 2011: The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford.
  9. RIZA (ed) 2005: Droogtestudie Nederland: aard, ernst en omvang van watertekorten in Nederland. Authors: RIZA, HKV, Arcadis, KIWA, Korbee en Hovelynck, Klopstra D, Versteeg R, Kroon T, RIZA-rapport 2005.016. Lelystad. www.helpdeskwater.nl/publish/pages/15599/aard_ernst_en_omvang-def.pdf
  10. Sheffield J, Wood EF 2011: Drought: past problems and future scenarios. Earthscan, London. (Chapter 7: Major Drought Events of the 20th Century)
  11. Sykora KV 1979: The effects of the severe drought of 1976 on the vegetation of some moorland pools in The Netherlands. Biological Conservation 16:145-162.
  12. van der Heijde, PKM 1978: De Droogte van 1976 - een samenvatting en overzicht van de over droogte van 1976 verschenen literatuur, Commissie vor Hydrologisch Onderzoek TNO, Rapporten en Nota's no. 3. TNO, Den Haag.
  13. Zaidman MD, Rees HG, Young AR 2001: Spatio-temporal developments of streamflow drought in north-west Europe, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 6: 733-751, doi:10.5194/hess-6-733-2002.

News Articles

  1. Leeuwarder Courant, August-15 2001: "Hitte en droogte teisterden Friesland in 1976", by Halbe Hettema.
  2. Aftenposten-1975-07-11, eavis.aftenposten.no/aftenposten/53954/1/?query=t%C3%83%C2%B8rke%20sverige
  3. Eugene Register-Guard - Aug 11, 1975, 11, “Forest fires kills six as drought burns Europe“ news.google.com/newspapers?nid=4pF9x-cDGsoC&dat=19750811&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
  4. EIR – Executive Intelligence Review (1976): “European Livestock Herds Slaughtered As Continent-Wide Drought Continues” (International Market Newsletter Section). EIR 3(29), July-20-1976. www.larouchepub.com/eiw/public/1976/eirv03n29-19760720/eirv03n29-19760720_003-european_livestock_herds_slaught.pdf
  5. Lewiston Morning Tribune – December- 20 1976: “Food prices soar in Europe after drought” news.google.com/newspapers?id=LKhfAAAAIBAJ&sjid=XzIMAAAAIBAJ&pg=2848,7833565&dq=drought+denmark&hl=en
  6. SPIEGEL 28/1976 July-5 1976: “Hitzewelle - Wie plagen aus alter Zeit“, www.spiegel.de/spiegel/print/d-41237656.html
  7. Zeit 29/1976 July-9 1976: Wenn die große Dürre kommt. www.zeit.de/1976/29/wenn-die-grosse-duerre-kommt

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